Chapter 11 Globalization

This chapter covers issues of globalization, which includes internationalization (MySQL's capabilities for adapting to local use) and localization (selecting particular local conventions):

  • MySQL support for character sets in SQL statements.

  • How to configure the server to support different character sets.

  • Selecting the language for error messages.

  • How to set the server's time zone and enable per-connection time zone support.

  • Selecting the locale for day and month names.

11.1 Character Set Support

MySQL includes character set support that enables you to store data using a variety of character sets and perform comparisons according to a variety of collations. You can specify character sets at the server, database, table, and column level. MySQL supports the use of character sets for the MyISAM, MEMORY, and InnoDB storage engines.

This chapter discusses the following topics:

  • What are character sets and collations?

  • The multiple-level default system for character set assignment.

  • Syntax for specifying character sets and collations.

  • Affected functions and operations.

  • Unicode support.

  • The character sets and collations that are available, with notes.

Character set issues affect not only data storage, but also communication between client programs and the MySQL server. If you want the client program to communicate with the server using a character set different from the default, you'll need to indicate which one. For example, to use the utf8 Unicode character set, issue this statement after connecting to the server:

SET NAMES 'utf8';

For more information about configuring character sets for application use and character set-related issues in client/server communication, see Section 11.1.5, “Configuring Application Character Set and Collation”, and Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”.

11.1.1 Character Sets and Collations in General

A character set is a set of symbols and encodings. A collation is a set of rules for comparing characters in a character set. Let's make the distinction clear with an example of an imaginary character set.

Suppose that we have an alphabet with four letters: A, B, a, b. We give each letter a number: A = 0, B = 1, a = 2, b = 3. The letter A is a symbol, the number 0 is the encoding for A, and the combination of all four letters and their encodings is a character set.

Suppose that we want to compare two string values, A and B. The simplest way to do this is to look at the encodings: 0 for A and 1 for B. Because 0 is less than 1, we say A is less than B. What we've just done is apply a collation to our character set. The collation is a set of rules (only one rule in this case): compare the encodings. We call this simplest of all possible collations a binary collation.

But what if we want to say that the lowercase and uppercase letters are equivalent? Then we would have at least two rules: (1) treat the lowercase letters a and b as equivalent to A and B; (2) then compare the encodings. We call this a case-insensitive collation. It is a little more complex than a binary collation.

In real life, most character sets have many characters: not just A and B but whole alphabets, sometimes multiple alphabets or eastern writing systems with thousands of characters, along with many special symbols and punctuation marks. Also in real life, most collations have many rules, not just for whether to distinguish lettercase, but also for whether to distinguish accents (an accent is a mark attached to a character as in German Ö), and for multiple-character mappings (such as the rule that Ö = OE in one of the two German collations).

MySQL can do these things for you:

  • Store strings using a variety of character sets.

  • Compare strings using a variety of collations.

  • Mix strings with different character sets or collations in the same server, the same database, or even the same table.

  • Enable specification of character set and collation at any level.

To use these features effectively, you must know what character sets and collations are available, how to change the defaults, and how they affect the behavior of string operators and functions.

11.1.2 Character Sets and Collations in MySQL

MySQL Server supports multiple character sets. To display the available character sets, use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS table or the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement. A partial listing follows. For more complete information, see Section 11.1.10, “Supported Character Sets and Collations”.

mysql> SHOW CHARACTER SET;
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| Charset  | Description                     | Default collation   | Maxlen |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| big5     | Big5 Traditional Chinese        | big5_chinese_ci     |      2 |
...
| latin1   | cp1252 West European            | latin1_swedish_ci   |      1 |
| latin2   | ISO 8859-2 Central European     | latin2_general_ci   |      1 |
...
| utf8     | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8_general_ci     |      3 |
| ucs2     | UCS-2 Unicode                   | ucs2_general_ci     |      2 |
...
| utf8mb4  | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8mb4_general_ci  |      4 |
...
| binary   | Binary pseudo charset           | binary              |      1 |
...

By default, the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement displays all available character sets. It takes an optional LIKE or WHERE clause that indicates which character set names to match. For example:

mysql> SHOW CHARACTER SET LIKE 'latin%';
+---------+-----------------------------+-------------------+--------+
| Charset | Description                 | Default collation | Maxlen |
+---------+-----------------------------+-------------------+--------+
| latin1  | cp1252 West European        | latin1_swedish_ci |      1 |
| latin2  | ISO 8859-2 Central European | latin2_general_ci |      1 |
| latin5  | ISO 8859-9 Turkish          | latin5_turkish_ci |      1 |
| latin7  | ISO 8859-13 Baltic          | latin7_general_ci |      1 |
+---------+-----------------------------+-------------------+--------+

A given character set always has at least one collation, and most character sets have several. To list the display collations for a character set, use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATIONS table or the SHOW COLLATION statement.

By default, the SHOW COLLATION statement displays all available collations. It takes an optional LIKE or WHERE clause that indicates which collation names to display. For example, to see the collations for the latin1 (cp1252 West European) character set, use this statement:

mysql> SHOW COLLATION WHERE Charset = 'latin1';
+-------------------+---------+----+---------+----------+---------+
| Collation         | Charset | Id | Default | Compiled | Sortlen |
+-------------------+---------+----+---------+----------+---------+
| latin1_german1_ci | latin1  |  5 |         | Yes      |       1 |
| latin1_swedish_ci | latin1  |  8 | Yes     | Yes      |       1 |
| latin1_danish_ci  | latin1  | 15 |         | Yes      |       1 |
| latin1_german2_ci | latin1  | 31 |         | Yes      |       2 |
| latin1_bin        | latin1  | 47 |         | Yes      |       1 |
| latin1_general_ci | latin1  | 48 |         | Yes      |       1 |
| latin1_general_cs | latin1  | 49 |         | Yes      |       1 |
| latin1_spanish_ci | latin1  | 94 |         | Yes      |       1 |
+-------------------+---------+----+---------+----------+---------+

The latin1 collations have the following meanings.

CollationMeaning
latin1_binBinary according to latin1 encoding
latin1_danish_ciDanish/Norwegian
latin1_general_ciMultilingual (Western European)
latin1_general_csMultilingual (ISO Western European), case sensitive
latin1_german1_ciGerman DIN-1 (dictionary order)
latin1_german2_ciGerman DIN-2 (phone book order)
latin1_spanish_ciModern Spanish
latin1_swedish_ciSwedish/Finnish

Collations have these general characteristics:

  • Two different character sets cannot have the same collation.

  • Each character set has a default collation. For example, the default collations for latin1 and utf8 are latin1_swedish_ci and utf8_general_ci, respectively. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS table and the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement indicate the default collation for each character set. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA COLLATIONS table and the SHOW COLLATION statement have a column that indicates for each collation whether it is the default for its character set (Yes if so, empty if not).

  • Collation names start with the name of the character set with which they are associated, generally followed by one or more suffixes indicating other collation characteristics. For additional information about naming conventions, see Section 11.1.3.1, “Collation Naming Conventions”.

When a character set has multiple collations, it might not be clear which collation is most suitable for a given application. To avoid choosing an inappropriate collation, perform some comparisons with representative data values to make sure that a given collation sorts values the way you expect.

11.1.2.1 String Repertoire

The repertoire of a character set is the collection of characters in the set.

String expressions have a repertoire attribute, which can have two values:

  • ASCII: The expression can contain only characters in the Unicode range U+0000 to U+007F.

  • UNICODE: The expression can contain characters in the Unicode range U+0000 to U+10FFFF. This includes characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) range (U+0000 to U+FFFF) and supplementary characters outside the BMP range (U+01000 to U+10FFFF).

The ASCII range is a subset of UNICODE range, so a string with ASCII repertoire can be converted safely without loss of information to the character set of any string with UNICODE repertoire or to a character set that is a superset of ASCII. (All MySQL character sets are supersets of ASCII with the exception of swe7, which reuses some punctuation characters for Swedish accented characters.) The use of repertoire enables character set conversion in expressions for many cases where MySQL would otherwise return an illegal mix of collations error.

The following discussion provides examples of expressions and their repertoires, and describes how the use of repertoire changes string expression evaluation:

  • The repertoire for string constants depends on string content:

    SET NAMES utf8; SELECT 'abc';
    SELECT _utf8'def';
    SELECT N'MySQL';
    

    Although the character set is utf8 in each of the preceding cases, the strings do not actually contain any characters outside the ASCII range, so their repertoire is ASCII rather than UNICODE.

  • Columns having the ascii character set have ASCII repertoire because of their character set. In the following table, c1 has ASCII repertoire:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET ascii);
    

    The following example illustrates how repertoire enables a result to be determined in a case where an error occurs without repertoire:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
      c1 CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET latin1,
      c2 CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET ascii
    );
    INSERT INTO t1 VALUES ('a','b');
    SELECT CONCAT(c1,c2) FROM t1;
    

    Without repertoire, this error occurs:

    ERROR 1267 (HY000): Illegal mix of collations (latin1_swedish_ci,IMPLICIT)
    and (ascii_general_ci,IMPLICIT) for operation 'concat'
    

    Using repertoire, subset to superset (ascii to latin1) conversion can occur and a result is returned:

    +---------------+
    | CONCAT(c1,c2) |
    +---------------+
    | ab            |
    +---------------+
    
  • Functions with one string argument inherit the repertoire of their argument. The result of UPPER(_utf8'abc') has ASCII repertoire because its argument has ASCII repertoire.

  • For functions that return a string but do not have string arguments and use character_set_connection as the result character set, the result repertoire is ASCII if character_set_connection is ascii, and UNICODE otherwise:

    FORMAT(numeric_column, 4);
    

    Use of repertoire changes how MySQL evaluates the following example:

    SET NAMES ascii;
    CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT, b VARCHAR(10) CHARACTER SET latin1);
    INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (1,'b');
    SELECT CONCAT(FORMAT(a, 4), b) FROM t1;
    

    Without repertoire, this error occurs:

    ERROR 1267 (HY000): Illegal mix of collations (ascii_general_ci,COERCIBLE)
    and (latin1_swedish_ci,IMPLICIT) for operation 'concat'
    

    With repertoire, a result is returned:

    +-------------------------+
    | CONCAT(FORMAT(a, 4), b) |
    +-------------------------+
    | 1.0000b                 |
    +-------------------------+
    
  • Functions with two or more string arguments use the widest argument repertoire for the result repertoire (UNICODE is wider than ASCII). Consider the following CONCAT() calls:

    CONCAT(_ucs2 X'0041', _ucs2 X'0042')
    CONCAT(_ucs2 X'0041', _ucs2 X'00C2')
    

    For the first call, the repertoire is ASCII because both arguments are within the range of the ascii character set. For the second call, the repertoire is UNICODE because the second argument is outside the ascii character set range.

  • The repertoire for function return values is determined based only on the repertoire of the arguments that affect the result's character set and collation.

    IF(column1 < column2, 'smaller', 'greater')
    

    The result repertoire is ASCII because the two string arguments (the second argument and the third argument) both have ASCII repertoire. The first argument does not matter for the result repertoire, even if the expression uses string values.

11.1.2.2 UTF-8 for Metadata

Metadata is the data about the data. Anything that describes the database—as opposed to being the contents of the database—is metadata. Thus column names, database names, user names, version names, and most of the string results from SHOW are metadata. This is also true of the contents of tables in INFORMATION_SCHEMA because those tables by definition contain information about database objects.

Representation of metadata must satisfy these requirements:

  • All metadata must be in the same character set. Otherwise, neither the SHOW statements nor SELECT statements for tables in INFORMATION_SCHEMA would work properly because different rows in the same column of the results of these operations would be in different character sets.

  • Metadata must include all characters in all languages. Otherwise, users would not be able to name columns and tables using their own languages.

To satisfy both requirements, MySQL stores metadata in a Unicode character set, namely UTF-8. This does not cause any disruption if you never use accented or non-Latin characters. But if you do, you should be aware that metadata is in UTF-8.

The metadata requirements mean that the return values of the USER(), CURRENT_USER(), SESSION_USER(), SYSTEM_USER(), DATABASE(), and VERSION() functions have the UTF-8 character set by default.

The server sets the character_set_system system variable to the name of the metadata character set:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character_set_system';
+----------------------+-------+
| Variable_name        | Value |
+----------------------+-------+
| character_set_system | utf8  |
+----------------------+-------+

Storage of metadata using Unicode does not mean that the server returns headers of columns and the results of DESCRIBE functions in the character_set_system character set by default. When you use SELECT column1 FROM t, the name column1 itself is returned from the server to the client in the character set determined by the value of the character_set_results system variable, which has a default value of latin1. If you want the server to pass metadata results back in a different character set, use the SET NAMES statement to force the server to perform character set conversion. SET NAMES sets the character_set_results and other related system variables. (See Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”.) Alternatively, a client program can perform the conversion after receiving the result from the server. It is more efficient for the client to perform the conversion, but this option is not always available for all clients.

If character_set_results is set to NULL, no conversion is performed and the server returns metadata using its original character set (the set indicated by character_set_system).

Error messages returned from the server to the client are converted to the client character set automatically, as with metadata.

If you are using (for example) the USER() function for comparison or assignment within a single statement, don't worry. MySQL performs some automatic conversion for you.

SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE USER() = latin1_column;

This works because the contents of latin1_column are automatically converted to UTF-8 before the comparison.

INSERT INTO t1 (latin1_column) SELECT USER();

This works because the contents of USER() are automatically converted to latin1 before the assignment.

Although automatic conversion is not in the SQL standard, the SQL standard document does say that every character set is (in terms of supported characters) a subset of Unicode. Because it is a well-known principle that what applies to a superset can apply to a subset, we believe that a collation for Unicode can apply for comparisons with non-Unicode strings. For more information about coercion of strings, see Section 11.1.8.4, “Collation of Expressions”.

11.1.3 Specifying Character Sets and Collations

There are default settings for character sets and collations at four levels: server, database, table, and column. The description in the following sections may appear complex, but it has been found in practice that multiple-level defaulting leads to natural and obvious results.

CHARACTER SET is used in clauses that specify a character set. CHARSET can be used as a synonym for CHARACTER SET.

Character set issues affect not only data storage, but also communication between client programs and the MySQL server. If you want the client program to communicate with the server using a character set different from the default, you'll need to indicate which one. For example, to use the utf8 Unicode character set, issue this statement after connecting to the server:

SET NAMES 'utf8';

For more information about character set-related issues in client/server communication, see Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”.

11.1.3.1 Collation Naming Conventions

MySQL collation names follow these conventions:

  • A collation name starts with the name of the character set with which it is associated, generally followed by one or more suffixes indicating other collation characteristics. For example, utf8_general_ci and latin1_swedish_ci are collations for the utf8 and latin1 character sets, respectively. The binary character set has a single collation, also named binary, with no suffixes.

  • A language-specific collation includes a language name. For example, utf8_turkish_ci and utf8_hungarian_ci sort characters for the utf8 character set using the rules of Turkish and Hungarian, respectively.

  • Collation suffixes indicate whether a collation is case and accent sensitive, or binary. The following table shows the suffixes used to indicate these characteristics.

    Table 11.1 Collation Case Sensitivity Suffixes

    Suffix Meaning
    _ai Accent insensitive
    _as Accent sensitive
    _ci Case insensitive
    _cs Case sensitive
    _bin Binary

    For nonbinary collation names that do not specify accent sensitivity, it is determined by case sensitivity. If a collation name does not contain _ai or _as, _ci in the name implies _ai and _cs in the name implies _as. For example, latin1_general_ci is explicitly case insensitive and implicitly accent insensitive, and latin1_general_cs is explicitly case sensitive and implicitly accent sensitive.

    For the binary collation of the binary character set, comparisons are based on numeric byte values. For the _bin collation of a nonbinary character set, comparisons are based on numeric character code values, which differ from byte values for multibyte characters. For more information, see Section 11.1.8.5, “The binary Collation Compared to _bin Collations”.

  • For Unicode character sets, collation names may include a version number to indicate the version of the Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA) on which the collation is based. UCA-based collations without a version number in the name use the version-4.0.0 UCA weight keys. For example:

  • For Unicode character sets, the xxx_general_mysql500_ci collations preserve the pre-5.1.24 ordering of the original xxx_general_ci collations and permit upgrades for tables created before MySQL 5.1.24. For more information, see Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”, and Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

11.1.3.2 Server Character Set and Collation

MySQL Server has a server character set and a server collation. These can be set at server startup on the command line or in an option file and changed at runtime.

Initially, the server character set and collation depend on the options that you use when you start mysqld. You can use --character-set-server for the character set. Along with it, you can add --collation-server for the collation. If you don't specify a character set, that is the same as saying --character-set-server=latin1. If you specify only a character set (for example, latin1) but not a collation, that is the same as saying --character-set-server=latin1 --collation-server=latin1_swedish_ci because latin1_swedish_ci is the default collation for latin1. Therefore, the following three commands all have the same effect:

shell> mysqld
shell> mysqld --character-set-server=latin1
shell> mysqld --character-set-server=latin1 \
           --collation-server=latin1_swedish_ci

One way to change the settings is by recompiling. To change the default server character set and collation when building from sources, use the DEFAULT_CHARSET and DEFAULT_COLLATION options for CMake. For example:

shell> cmake . -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=latin1

Or:

shell> cmake . -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=latin1 \
           -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=latin1_german1_ci

Both mysqld and CMake verify that the character set/collation combination is valid. If not, each program displays an error message and terminates.

The server character set and collation are used as default values if the database character set and collation are not specified in CREATE DATABASE statements. They have no other purpose.

The current server character set and collation can be determined from the values of the character_set_server and collation_server system variables. These variables can be changed at runtime.

11.1.3.3 Database Character Set and Collation

Every database has a database character set and a database collation. The CREATE DATABASE and ALTER DATABASE statements have optional clauses for specifying the database character set and collation:

CREATE DATABASE db_name
    [[DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [[DEFAULT] COLLATE collation_name]

ALTER DATABASE db_name
    [[DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [[DEFAULT] COLLATE collation_name]

The keyword SCHEMA can be used instead of DATABASE.

All database options are stored in a text file named db.opt that can be found in the database directory.

The CHARACTER SET and COLLATE clauses make it possible to create databases with different character sets and collations on the same MySQL server.

Example:

CREATE DATABASE db_name CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;

MySQL chooses the database character set and database collation in the following manner:

  • If both CHARACTER SET charset_name and COLLATE collation_name are specified, character set charset_name and collation collation_name are used.

  • If CHARACTER SET charset_name is specified without COLLATE, character set charset_name and its default collation are used. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement.

  • If COLLATE collation_name is specified without CHARACTER SET, the character set associated with collation_name and collation collation_name are used.

  • Otherwise (neither CHARACTER SET nor COLLATE is specified), the server character set and server collation are used.

The character set and collation for the default database can be determined from the values of the character_set_database and collation_database system variables. The server sets these variables whenever the default database changes. If there is no default database, the variables have the same value as the corresponding server-level system variables, character_set_server and collation_server.

To see the default character set and collation for a given database, use these statements:

USE db_name;
SELECT @@character_set_database, @@collation_database;

Alternatively, to display the values without changing the default database:

SELECT DEFAULT_CHARACTER_SET_NAME, DEFAULT_COLLATION_NAME
FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'db_name';

The database character set and collation affect these aspects of server operation:

  • For CREATE TABLE statements, the database character set and collation are used as default values for table definitions if the table character set and collation are not specified. To override this, provide explicit CHARACTER SET and COLLATE table options.

  • For LOAD DATA statements that include no CHARACTER SET clause, the server uses the character set indicated by the character_set_database system variable to interpret the information in the file. To override this, provide an explicit CHARACTER SET clause.

  • For stored routines (procedures and functions), the database character set and collation in effect at routine creation time are used as the character set and collation of character data parameters for which the declaration includes no CHARACTER SET or COLLATE attribute. To override this, provide explicit CHARACTER SET and COLLATE attributes.

11.1.3.4 Table Character Set and Collation

Every table has a table character set and a table collation. The CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements have optional clauses for specifying the table character set and collation:

CREATE TABLE tbl_name (column_list)
    [[DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [COLLATE collation_name]]

ALTER TABLE tbl_name
    [[DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [COLLATE collation_name]

Example:

CREATE TABLE t1 ( ... )
CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_danish_ci;

MySQL chooses the table character set and collation in the following manner:

  • If both CHARACTER SET charset_name and COLLATE collation_name are specified, character set charset_name and collation collation_name are used.

  • If CHARACTER SET charset_name is specified without COLLATE, character set charset_name and its default collation are used. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement.

  • If COLLATE collation_name is specified without CHARACTER SET, the character set associated with collation_name and collation collation_name are used.

  • Otherwise (neither CHARACTER SET nor COLLATE is specified), the database character set and collation are used.

The table character set and collation are used as default values for column definitions if the column character set and collation are not specified in individual column definitions. The table character set and collation are MySQL extensions; there are no such things in standard SQL.

11.1.3.5 Column Character Set and Collation

Every character column (that is, a column of type CHAR, VARCHAR, or TEXT) has a column character set and a column collation. Column definition syntax for CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE has optional clauses for specifying the column character set and collation:

col_name {CHAR | VARCHAR | TEXT} (col_length)
    [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [COLLATE collation_name]

These clauses can also be used for ENUM and SET columns:

col_name {ENUM | SET} (val_list)
    [CHARACTER SET charset_name]
    [COLLATE collation_name]

Examples:

CREATE TABLE t1
(
    col1 VARCHAR(5)
      CHARACTER SET latin1
      COLLATE latin1_german1_ci
);

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY
    col1 VARCHAR(5)
      CHARACTER SET latin1
      COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci;

MySQL chooses the column character set and collation in the following manner:

  • If both CHARACTER SET charset_name and COLLATE collation_name are specified, character set charset_name and collation collation_name are used.

    CREATE TABLE t1
    (
        col1 CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci
    ) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_bin;
    

    The character set and collation are specified for the column, so they are used. The column has character set utf8 and collation utf8_unicode_ci.

  • If CHARACTER SET charset_name is specified without COLLATE, character set charset_name and its default collation are used.

    CREATE TABLE t1
    (
        col1 CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8
    ) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_bin;
    

    The character set is specified for the column, but the collation is not. The column has character set utf8 and the default collation for utf8, which is utf8_general_ci. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement.

  • If COLLATE collation_name is specified without CHARACTER SET, the character set associated with collation_name and collation collation_name are used.

    CREATE TABLE t1
    (
        col1 CHAR(10) COLLATE utf8_polish_ci
    ) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_bin;
    

    The collation is specified for the column, but the character set is not. The column has collation utf8_polish_ci and the character set is the one associated with the collation, which is utf8.

  • Otherwise (neither CHARACTER SET nor COLLATE is specified), the table character set and collation are used.

    CREATE TABLE t1
    (
        col1 CHAR(10)
    ) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_bin;
    

    Neither the character set nor collation is specified for the column, so the table defaults are used. The column has character set latin1 and collation latin1_bin.

The CHARACTER SET and COLLATE clauses are standard SQL.

If you use ALTER TABLE to convert a column from one character set to another, MySQL attempts to map the data values, but if the character sets are incompatible, there may be data loss.

11.1.3.6 Character String Literal Character Set and Collation

Every character string literal has a character set and a collation.

For the simple statement SELECT 'string', the string has the connection default character set and collation defined by the character_set_connection and collation_connection system variables.

A character string literal may have an optional character set introducer and COLLATE clause, to designate it as a string that uses a particular character set and collation:

[_charset_name]'string' [COLLATE collation_name]

Character set introducers and the COLLATE clause are implemented according to standard SQL specifications.

Examples:

SELECT 'abc';
SELECT _latin1'abc';
SELECT _binary'abc';
SELECT _utf8'abc' COLLATE utf8_danish_ci;

The _charset_name expression is formally called an introducer. It tells the parser, the string that follows uses character set charset_name. An introducer does not change the string to the introducer character set like CONVERT() would do. It does not change the string value, although padding may occur. The introducer is just a signal.

MySQL determines the character set and collation of a character string literal in the following manner:

  • If both _charset_name and COLLATE collation_name are specified, character set charset_name and collation collation_name are used. collation_name must be a permitted collation for charset_name.

  • If _charset_name is specified but COLLATE is not specified, character set charset_name and its default collation are used. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement.

  • If _charset_name is not specified but COLLATE collation_name is specified, the connection default character set given by the character_set_connection system variable and collation collation_name are used. collation_name must be a permitted collation for the connection default character set.

  • Otherwise (neither _charset_name nor COLLATE collation_name is specified), the connection default character set and collation given by the character_set_connection and collation_connection system variables are used.

Examples:

  • A nonbinary string with latin1 character set and latin1_german1_ci collation:

    SELECT _latin1'Müller' COLLATE latin1_german1_ci;
    
  • A nonbinary string with utf8 character set and its default collation (that is, utf8_general_ci):

    SELECT _utf8'Müller';
    
  • A binary string with binary character set and its default collation (that is, binary):

    SELECT _binary'Müller';
    
  • A nonbinary string with the connection default character set and utf8_general_ci collation (fails if the connection character set is not utf8):

    SELECT 'Müller' COLLATE utf8_general_ci;
    
  • A string with the connection default character set and collation:

    SELECT 'Müller';
    

An introducer indicates the character set for the following string, but does not change how the parser performs escape processing within the string. Escapes are always interpreted by the parser according to the character set given by character_set_connection.

The following examples show that escape processing occurs using character_set_connection even in the presence of an introducer. The examples use SET NAMES (which changes character_set_connection, as discussed in Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”), and display the resulting strings using the HEX() function so that the exact string contents can be seen.

Example 1:

mysql> SET NAMES latin1;
mysql> SELECT HEX('à\n'), HEX(_sjis'à\n');
+------------+-----------------+
| HEX('à\n')  | HEX(_sjis'à\n')  |
+------------+-----------------+
| E00A       | E00A            |
+------------+-----------------+

Here, à (hexadecimal value E0) is followed by \n, the escape sequence for newline. The escape sequence is interpreted using the character_set_connection value of latin1 to produce a literal newline (hexadecimal value 0A). This happens even for the second string. That is, the _sjis introducer does not affect the parser's escape processing.

Example 2:

mysql> SET NAMES sjis;
mysql> SELECT HEX('à\n'), HEX(_latin1'à\n');
+------------+-------------------+
| HEX('à\n')  | HEX(_latin1'à\n')  |
+------------+-------------------+
| E05C6E     | E05C6E            |
+------------+-------------------+

Here, character_set_connection is sjis, a character set in which the sequence of à followed by \ (hexadecimal values 05 and 5C) is a valid multibyte character. Hence, the first two bytes of the string are interpreted as a single sjis character, and the \ is not interpreted as an escape character. The following n (hexadecimal value 6E) is not interpreted as part of an escape sequence. This is true even for the second string; the _latin1 introducer does not affect escape processing.

11.1.3.7 The National Character Set

Standard SQL defines NCHAR or NATIONAL CHAR as a way to indicate that a CHAR column should use some predefined character set. MySQL uses utf8 as this predefined character set. For example, these data type declarations are equivalent:

CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8
NATIONAL CHARACTER(10)
NCHAR(10)

As are these:

VARCHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8
NATIONAL VARCHAR(10)
NVARCHAR(10)
NCHAR VARCHAR(10)
NATIONAL CHARACTER VARYING(10)
NATIONAL CHAR VARYING(10)

You can use N'literal' (or n'literal') to create a string in the national character set. These statements are equivalent:

SELECT N'some text';
SELECT n'some text';
SELECT _utf8'some text';

11.1.3.8 Character Set Introducers

A character string literal, hexadecimal literal, or bit-value literal may have an optional character set introducer and COLLATE clause, to designate it as a string that uses a particular character set and collation:

[_charset_name] literal [COLLATE collation_name]

Character set introducers and the COLLATE clause are implemented according to standard SQL specifications.

Examples:

SELECT 'abc';
SELECT _latin1'abc';
SELECT _binary'abc';
SELECT _utf8'abc' COLLATE utf8_danish_ci;

SELECT _latin1 X'4D7953514C';
SELECT _utf8 0x4D7953514C COLLATE utf8_danish_ci;

SELECT _latin1 b'1000001';
SELECT _utf8 0b1000001 COLLATE utf8_danish_ci;

The _charset_name expression is formally called an introducer. It tells the parser, the string that follows uses character set charset_name. An introducer does not change the string to the introducer character set like CONVERT() would do. It does not change the string value, although padding may occur. The introducer is just a signal.

For character string literals, space between the introducer and the string is permitted but optional.

Character string literals can be designated as binary strings by using the _binary introducer. Hexadecimal literals and bit-value literals are binary strings by default, so _binary is permitted, but unnecessary.

MySQL determines the character set and collation of a character string literal, hexadecimal literal, or bit-value literal in the following manner:

  • If both _charset_name and COLLATE collation_name are specified, character set charset_name and collation collation_name are used. collation_name must be a permitted collation for charset_name.

  • If _charset_name is specified but COLLATE is not specified, character set charset_name and its default collation are used. To see the default collation for each character set, use the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement.

  • If _charset_name is not specified but COLLATE collation_name is specified:

    • For a character string literal, the connection default character set given by the character_set_connection system variable and collation collation_name are used. collation_name must be a permitted collation for the connection default character set.

    • For a hexadecimal literal or bit-value literal, the only permitted collation is binary because these types of literals are binary strings by default.

  • Otherwise (neither _charset_name nor COLLATE collation_name is specified):

    • For a character string literal, the connection default character set and collation given by the character_set_connection and collation_connection system variables are used.

    • For a hexadecimal literal or bit-value literal, the character set and collation are binary.

Examples:

  • Nonbinary strings with latin1 character set and latin1_german1_ci collation:

    SELECT _latin1'Müller' COLLATE latin1_german1_ci;
    SELECT _latin1 X'0A0D' COLLATE latin1_german1_ci;
    SELECT _latin1 b'0110' COLLATE latin1_german1_ci;
    
  • Nonbinary strings with utf8 character set and its default collation (that is, utf8_general_ci):

    SELECT _utf8'Müller';
    SELECT _utf8 X'0A0D';
    SELECT _utf8 b'0110';
    
  • Binary strings with binary character set and its default collation (that is, binary):

    SELECT _binary'Müller';
    SELECT X'0A0D';
    SELECT b'0110';
    

    The hexadecimal literal and bit-value literal need no introducer because they are binary strings by default.

  • A nonbinary string with the connection default character set and utf8_general_ci collation (fails if the connection character set is not utf8):

    SELECT 'Müller' COLLATE utf8_general_ci;
    

    This construction (COLLATE only) does not work for hexadecimal literals or bit literals because their character set is binary no matter the connection character set, and binary is not compatible with the utf8_general_ci collation. The only permitted COLLATE clause in the absence of an introducer is COLLATE binary.

  • A string with the connection default character set and collation:

    SELECT 'Müller';
    

For character set literals, an introducer indicates the character set for the following string, but does not change how the parser performs escape processing within the string. Escapes are always interpreted by the parser according to the character set given by character_set_connection. For additional discussion and examples, see Section 11.1.3.6, “Character String Literal Character Set and Collation”.

11.1.3.9 Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment

The following examples show how MySQL determines default character set and collation values.

Example 1: Table and Column Definition

CREATE TABLE t1
(
    c1 CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_german1_ci
) DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin2 COLLATE latin2_bin;

Here we have a column with a latin1 character set and a latin1_german1_ci collation. The definition is explicit, so that is straightforward. Notice that there is no problem with storing a latin1 column in a latin2 table.

Example 2: Table and Column Definition

CREATE TABLE t1
(
    c1 CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET latin1
) DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_danish_ci;

This time we have a column with a latin1 character set and a default collation. Although it might seem natural, the default collation is not taken from the table level. Instead, because the default collation for latin1 is always latin1_swedish_ci, column c1 has a collation of latin1_swedish_ci (not latin1_danish_ci).

Example 3: Table and Column Definition

CREATE TABLE t1
(
    c1 CHAR(10)
) DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_danish_ci;

We have a column with a default character set and a default collation. In this circumstance, MySQL checks the table level to determine the column character set and collation. Consequently, the character set for column c1 is latin1 and its collation is latin1_danish_ci.

Example 4: Database, Table, and Column Definition

CREATE DATABASE d1
    DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin2 COLLATE latin2_czech_ci;
USE d1;
CREATE TABLE t1
(
    c1 CHAR(10)
);

We create a column without specifying its character set and collation. We're also not specifying a character set and a collation at the table level. In this circumstance, MySQL checks the database level to determine the table settings, which thereafter become the column settings.) Consequently, the character set for column c1 is latin2 and its collation is latin2_czech_ci.

11.1.3.10 Compatibility with Other DBMSs

For MaxDB compatibility these two statements are the same:

CREATE TABLE t1 (f1 CHAR(N) UNICODE);
CREATE TABLE t1 (f1 CHAR(N) CHARACTER SET ucs2);

11.1.4 Connection Character Sets and Collations

Several character set and collation system variables relate to a client's interaction with the server. Some of these have been mentioned in earlier sections:

Additional character set and collation system variables are involved in handling traffic for the connection between a client and the server. Every client has connection-related character set and collation system variables.

A connection is what you make when you connect to the server. The client sends SQL statements, such as queries, over the connection to the server. The server sends responses, such as result sets or error messages, over the connection back to the client. This leads to several questions about character set and collation handling for client connections, each of which can be answered in terms of system variables:

  • What character set is the statement in when it leaves the client?

    The server takes the character_set_client system variable to be the character set in which statements are sent by the client.

  • What character set should the server translate a statement to after receiving it?

    For this, the server uses the character_set_connection and collation_connection system variables. It converts statements sent by the client from character_set_client to character_set_connection (except for string literals that have an introducer such as _latin1 or _utf8). collation_connection is important for comparisons of literal strings. For comparisons of strings with column values, collation_connection does not matter because columns have their own collation, which has a higher collation precedence.

  • What character set should the server translate to before shipping result sets or error messages back to the client?

    The character_set_results system variable indicates the character set in which the server returns query results to the client. This includes result data such as column values, and result metadata such as column names and error messages.

Clients can fine-tune the settings for these variables, or depend on the defaults (in which case, you can skip the rest of this section). If you do not use the defaults, you must change the character settings for each connection to the server.

Two statements affect the connection-related character set variables as a group:

  • SET NAMES 'charset_name' [COLLATE 'collation_name']

    SET NAMES indicates what character set the client will use to send SQL statements to the server. Thus, SET NAMES 'cp1251' tells the server, future incoming messages from this client are in character set cp1251. It also specifies the character set that the server should use for sending results back to the client. (For example, it indicates what character set to use for column values if you use a SELECT statement.)

    A SET NAMES 'charset_name' statement is equivalent to these three statements:

    SET character_set_client = charset_name;
    SET character_set_results = charset_name;
    SET character_set_connection = charset_name;
    

    Setting character_set_connection to charset_name also implicitly sets collation_connection to the default collation for charset_name. It is unnecessary to set that collation explicitly. To specify a particular collation, use the optional COLLATE clause:

    SET NAMES 'charset_name' COLLATE 'collation_name'
    
  • SET CHARACTER SET charset_name

    SET CHARACTER SET is similar to SET NAMES but sets character_set_connection and collation_connection to character_set_database and collation_database. A SET CHARACTER SET charset_name statement is equivalent to these three statements:

    SET character_set_client = charset_name;
    SET character_set_results = charset_name;
    SET collation_connection = @@collation_database;
    

    Setting collation_connection also implicitly sets character_set_connection to the character set associated with the collation (equivalent to executing SET character_set_connection = @@character_set_database). It is unnecessary to set character_set_connection explicitly.

Note

ucs2, utf16, utf16le, and utf32 cannot be used as a client character set, which means that they do not work for SET NAMES or SET CHARACTER SET.

The MySQL client programs mysql, mysqladmin, mysqlcheck, mysqlimport, and mysqlshow determine the default character set to use as follows:

  • In the absence of other information, the programs use the compiled-in default character set, usually latin1.

  • The programs can autodetect which character set to use based on the operating system setting, such as the value of the LANG or LC_ALL locale environment variable on Unix systems or the code page setting on Windows systems. For systems on which the locale is available from the OS, the client uses it to set the default character set rather than using the compiled-in default. For example, setting LANG to ru_RU.KOI8-R causes the koi8r character set to be used. Thus, users can configure the locale in their environment for use by MySQL clients.

    The OS character set is mapped to the closest MySQL character set if there is no exact match. If the client does not support the matching character set, it uses the compiled-in default. For example, ucs2 is not supported as a connection character set.

    C applications can use character set autodetection based on the OS setting by invoking mysql_options() as follows before connecting to the server:

    mysql_options(mysql,
                  MYSQL_SET_CHARSET_NAME,
                  MYSQL_AUTODETECT_CHARSET_NAME);
    
  • The programs support a --default-character-set option, which enables users to specify the character set explicitly to override whatever default the client otherwise determines.

When a client connects to the server, it sends the name of the character set that it wants to use. The server uses the name to set the character_set_client, character_set_results, and character_set_connection system variables. In effect, the server performs a SET NAMES operation using the character set name.

With the mysql client, to use a character set different from the default, you could explicitly execute SET NAMES every time you start up. To accomplish the same result more easily, add the --default-character-set option setting to your mysql command line or in your option file. For example, the following option file setting changes the three connection-related character set variables set to koi8r each time you invoke mysql:

[mysql]
default-character-set=koi8r

If you are using the mysql client with auto-reconnect enabled (which is not recommended), it is preferable to use the charset command rather than SET NAMES. For example:

mysql> charset utf8
Charset changed

The charset command issues a SET NAMES statement, and also changes the default character set that mysql uses when it reconnects after the connection has dropped.

Example: Suppose that column1 is defined as CHAR(5) CHARACTER SET latin2. If you do not say SET NAMES or SET CHARACTER SET, then for SELECT column1 FROM t, the server sends back all the values for column1 using the character set that the client specified when it connected. On the other hand, if you say SET NAMES 'latin1' or SET CHARACTER SET latin1 before issuing the SELECT statement, the server converts the latin2 values to latin1 just before sending results back. Conversion may be lossy if there are characters that are not in both character sets.

If you want the server to perform no conversion of result sets or error messages, set character_set_results to NULL or binary:

SET character_set_results = NULL;

To see the values of the character set and collation system variables that apply to your connection, use these statements:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character_set%';
SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'collation%';

You must also consider the environment within which your MySQL applications execute. See Section 11.1.5, “Configuring Application Character Set and Collation”.

For more information about character sets and error messages, see Section 11.1.6, “Error Message Character Set”.

11.1.5 Configuring Application Character Set and Collation

For applications that store data using the default MySQL character set and collation (latin1, latin1_swedish_ci), no special configuration should be needed. If applications require data storage using a different character set or collation, you can configure character set information several ways:

  • Specify character settings per database. For example, applications that use one database might require utf8, whereas applications that use another database might require sjis.

  • Specify character settings at server startup. This causes the server to use the given settings for all applications that do not make other arrangements.

  • Specify character settings at configuration time, if you build MySQL from source. This causes the server to use the given settings for all applications, without having to specify them at server startup.

When different applications require different character settings, the per-database technique provides a good deal of flexibility. If most or all applications use the same character set, specifying character settings at server startup or configuration time may be most convenient.

For the per-database or server-startup techniques, the settings control the character set for data storage. Applications must also tell the server which character set to use for client/server communications, as described in the following instructions.

The examples shown here assume use of the utf8 character set and utf8_general_ci collation.

Specify character settings per database. To create a database such that its tables will use a given default character set and collation for data storage, use a CREATE DATABASE statement like this:

CREATE DATABASE mydb
  DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8
  DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

Tables created in the database will use utf8 and utf8_general_ci by default for any character columns.

Applications that use the database should also configure their connection to the server each time they connect. This can be done by executing a SET NAMES 'utf8' statement after connecting. The statement can be used regardless of connection method: The mysql client, PHP scripts, and so forth.

In some cases, it may be possible to configure the connection to use the desired character set some other way. For example, for connections made using mysql, you can specify the --default-character-set=utf8 command-line option to achieve the same effect as SET NAMES 'utf8'.

For more information about configuring client connections, see Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”.

If you change the default character set or collation for a database, stored routines that use the database defaults must be dropped and recreated so that they use the new defaults. (In a stored routine, variables with character data types use the database defaults if the character set or collation are not specified explicitly. See Section 14.1.16, “CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax”.)

Specify character settings at server startup. To select a character set and collation at server startup, use the --character-set-server and --collation-server options. For example, to specify the options in an option file, include these lines:

[mysqld]
character-set-server=utf8
collation-server=utf8_general_ci

These settings apply server-wide and apply as the defaults for databases created by any application, and for tables created in those databases.

It is still necessary for applications to configure their connection using SET NAMES or equivalent after they connect, as described previously. You might be tempted to start the server with the --init_connect="SET NAMES 'utf8'" option to cause SET NAMES to be executed automatically for each client that connects. However, this will yield inconsistent results because the init_connect value is not executed for users who have the SUPER privilege.

Specify character settings at MySQL configuration time. To select a character set and collation when you configure and build MySQL from source, use the DEFAULT_CHARSET and DEFAULT_COLLATION options for CMake:

shell> cmake . -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
           -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci

The resulting server uses utf8 and utf8_general_ci as the default for databases and tables and for client connections. It is unnecessary to use --character-set-server and --collation-server to specify those defaults at server startup. It is also unnecessary for applications to configure their connection using SET NAMES or equivalent after they connect to the server.

Regardless of how you configure the MySQL character set for application use, you must also consider the environment within which those applications execute. If you will send statements using UTF-8 text taken from a file that you create in an editor, you should edit the file with the locale of your environment set to UTF-8 so that the file encoding is correct and so that the operating system handles it correctly. If you use the mysql client from within a terminal window, the window must be configured to use UTF-8 or characters may not display properly. For a script that executes in a Web environment, the script must handle character encoding properly for its interaction with the MySQL server, and it must generate pages that correctly indicate the encoding so that browsers know how to display the content of the pages. For example, you can include this <meta> tag within your <head> element:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />

11.1.6 Error Message Character Set

This section describes how the MySQL server uses character sets for constructing error messages and returning them to clients. For information about the language of error messages (rather than the character set), see Section 11.2, “Setting the Error Message Language”.

The server constructs error messages using UTF-8 and returns them to clients in the character set specified by the character_set_results system variable.

The server constructs error messages as follows:

  • The message template uses UTF-8.

  • Parameters in the message template are replaced with values that apply to a specific error occurrence:

    • Identifiers such as table or column names use UTF-8 internally so they are copied as is.

    • Character (nonbinary) string values are converted from their character set to UTF-8.

    • Binary string values are copied as is for bytes in the range 0x20 to 0x7E, and using \x hexadecimal encoding for bytes outside that range. For example, if a duplicate-key error occurs for an attempt to insert 0x41CF9F into a VARBINARY unique column, the resulting error message uses UTF-8 with some bytes hexadecimal encoded:

      Duplicate entry 'A\xC3\x9F' for key 1
      

To return a message to the client after it has been constructed, the server converts it from UTF-8 to the character set specified by the character_set_results system variable. If character_set_results has a value of NULL or binary, no conversion occurs. No conversion occurs if the variable value is utf8, either, because that matches the original error message character set.

For characters that cannot be represented in character_set_results, some encoding may occur during the conversion. The encoding uses Unicode code point values:

  • Characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) range (0x0000 to 0xFFFF) are written using \nnnn notation.

  • Characters outside the BMP range (0x01000 to 0x10FFFF) are written using \+nnnnnn notation.

Clients can set character_set_results to control the character set in which they receive error messages. The variable can be set directly, or indirectly by means such as SET NAMES. For more information about character_set_results, see Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”.

The encoding that occurs during the conversion to character_set_results before returning error messages to clients can result in different message content compared to earlier versions (before MySQL 5.5). For example, if an error occurs for an attempt to drop a table named (KATAKANA LETTER PE) and character_set_results is a character set such as latin1 that does not contain that character, the resulting message sent to the client has an encoded table name:

ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table '\30DA'

Before MySQL 5.5, the name is not encoded:

ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'ペ'

11.1.7 Column Character Set Conversion

To convert a binary or nonbinary string column to use a particular character set, use ALTER TABLE. For successful conversion to occur, one of the following conditions must apply:

  • If the column has a binary data type (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB), all the values that it contains must be encoded using a single character set (the character set you're converting the column to). If you use a binary column to store information in multiple character sets, MySQL has no way to know which values use which character set and cannot convert the data properly.

  • If the column has a nonbinary data type (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT), its contents should be encoded in the column character set, not some other character set. If the contents are encoded in a different character set, you can convert the column to use a binary data type first, and then to a nonbinary column with the desired character set.

Suppose that a table t has a binary column named col1 defined as VARBINARY(50). Assuming that the information in the column is encoded using a single character set, you can convert it to a nonbinary column that has that character set. For example, if col1 contains binary data representing characters in the greek character set, you can convert it as follows:

ALTER TABLE t MODIFY col1 VARCHAR(50) CHARACTER SET greek;

If your original column has a type of BINARY(50), you could convert it to CHAR(50), but the resulting values will be padded with 0x00 bytes at the end, which may be undesirable. To remove these bytes, use the TRIM() function:

UPDATE t SET col1 = TRIM(TRAILING 0x00 FROM col1);

Suppose that table t has a nonbinary column named col1 defined as CHAR(50) CHARACTER SET latin1 but you want to convert it to use utf8 so that you can store values from many languages. The following statement accomplishes this:

ALTER TABLE t MODIFY col1 CHAR(50) CHARACTER SET utf8;

Conversion may be lossy if the column contains characters that are not in both character sets.

A special case occurs if you have old tables from before MySQL 4.1 where a nonbinary column contains values that actually are encoded in a character set different from the server's default character set. For example, an application might have stored sjis values in a column, even though MySQL's default character set was latin1. It is possible to convert the column to use the proper character set but an additional step is required. Suppose that the server's default character set was latin1 and col1 is defined as CHAR(50) but its contents are sjis values. The first step is to convert the column to a binary data type, which removes the existing character set information without performing any character conversion:

ALTER TABLE t MODIFY col1 BLOB;

The next step is to convert the column to a nonbinary data type with the proper character set:

ALTER TABLE t MODIFY col1 CHAR(50) CHARACTER SET sjis;

This procedure requires that the table not have been modified already with statements such as INSERT or UPDATE after an upgrade to MySQL 4.1 or later. In that case, MySQL would store new values in the column using latin1, and the column will contain a mix of sjis and latin1 values and cannot be converted properly.

If you specified attributes when creating a column initially, you should also specify them when altering the table with ALTER TABLE. For example, if you specified NOT NULL and an explicit DEFAULT value, you should also provide them in the ALTER TABLE statement. Otherwise, the resulting column definition will not include those attributes.

To convert all character columns in a table, the ALTER TABLE ... CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET charset statement may be useful. See Section 14.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”.

11.1.8 Collation Issues

The following sections discuss various aspects of character set collations.

11.1.8.1 Using COLLATE in SQL Statements

With the COLLATE clause, you can override whatever the default collation is for a comparison. COLLATE may be used in various parts of SQL statements. Here are some examples:

  • With ORDER BY:

    SELECT k
    FROM t1
    ORDER BY k COLLATE latin1_german2_ci;
    
  • With AS:

    SELECT k COLLATE latin1_german2_ci AS k1
    FROM t1
    ORDER BY k1;
    
  • With GROUP BY:

    SELECT k
    FROM t1
    GROUP BY k COLLATE latin1_german2_ci;
    
  • With aggregate functions:

    SELECT MAX(k COLLATE latin1_german2_ci)
    FROM t1;
    
  • With DISTINCT:

    SELECT DISTINCT k COLLATE latin1_german2_ci
    FROM t1;
    
  • With WHERE:

         SELECT *
         FROM t1
         WHERE _latin1 'Müller' COLLATE latin1_german2_ci = k;
    
         SELECT *
         FROM t1
         WHERE k LIKE _latin1 'Müller' COLLATE latin1_german2_ci;
    
  • With HAVING:

    SELECT k
    FROM t1
    GROUP BY k
    HAVING k = _latin1 'Müller' COLLATE latin1_german2_ci;
    

11.1.8.2 COLLATE Clause Precedence

The COLLATE clause has high precedence (higher than ||), so the following two expressions are equivalent:

x || y COLLATE z
x || (y COLLATE z)

11.1.8.3 Character Set and Collation Compatibility

Each character set has one or more collations, but each collation is associated with one and only one character set. Therefore, the following statement causes an error message because the latin2_bin collation is not legal with the latin1 character set:

mysql> SELECT _latin1 'x' COLLATE latin2_bin;
ERROR 1253 (42000): COLLATION 'latin2_bin' is not valid
for CHARACTER SET 'latin1'

11.1.8.4 Collation of Expressions

In the great majority of statements, it is obvious what collation MySQL uses to resolve a comparison operation. For example, in the following cases, it should be clear that the collation is the collation of column charset_name:

SELECT x FROM T ORDER BY x;
SELECT x FROM T WHERE x = x;
SELECT DISTINCT x FROM T;

However, with multiple operands, there can be ambiguity. For example:

SELECT x FROM T WHERE x = 'Y';

Should the comparison use the collation of the column x, or of the string literal 'Y'? Both x and 'Y' have collations, so which collation takes precedence?

Standard SQL resolves such questions using what used to be called coercibility rules. MySQL assigns coercibility values as follows:

  • An explicit COLLATE clause has a coercibility of 0. (Not coercible at all.)

  • The concatenation of two strings with different collations has a coercibility of 1.

  • The collation of a column or a stored routine parameter or local variable has a coercibility of 2.

  • A system constant (the string returned by functions such as USER() or VERSION()) has a coercibility of 3.

  • The collation of a literal has a coercibility of 4.

  • NULL or an expression that is derived from NULL has a coercibility of 5.

MySQL uses coercibility values with the following rules to resolve ambiguities:

  • Use the collation with the lowest coercibility value.

  • If both sides have the same coercibility, then:

    • If both sides are Unicode, or both sides are not Unicode, it is an error.

    • If one of the sides has a Unicode character set, and another side has a non-Unicode character set, the side with Unicode character set wins, and automatic character set conversion is applied to the non-Unicode side. For example, the following statement does not return an error:

      SELECT CONCAT(utf8_column, latin1_column) FROM t1;
      

      It returns a result that has a character set of utf8 and the same collation as utf8_column. Values of latin1_column are automatically converted to utf8 before concatenating.

    • For an operation with operands from the same character set but that mix a _bin collation and a _ci or _cs collation, the _bin collation is used. This is similar to how operations that mix nonbinary and binary strings evaluate the operands as binary strings, except that it is for collations rather than data types.

Although automatic conversion is not in the SQL standard, the SQL standard document does say that every character set is (in terms of supported characters) a subset of Unicode. Because it is a well-known principle that what applies to a superset can apply to a subset, we believe that a collation for Unicode can apply for comparisons with non-Unicode strings.

Examples:

ComparisonCollation Used
column1 = 'A'Use collation of column1
column1 = 'A' COLLATE xUse collation of 'A' COLLATE x
column1 COLLATE x = 'A' COLLATE yError

The COERCIBILITY() function can be used to determine the coercibility of a string expression:

mysql> SELECT COERCIBILITY('A' COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci);
        -> 0
mysql> SELECT COERCIBILITY(VERSION());
        -> 3
mysql> SELECT COERCIBILITY('A');
        -> 4

See Section 13.14, “Information Functions”.

For implicit conversion of a numeric or temporal value to a string, such as occurs for the argument 1 in the expression CONCAT(1, 'abc'), the result is a character (nonbinary) string that has a character set and collation determined by the character_set_connection and collation_connection system variables. See Section 13.2, “Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation”.

11.1.8.5 The binary Collation Compared to _bin Collations

This section describes how the binary collation for binary strings compares to the _bin collations for nonbinary strings.

Binary strings (as stored using the BINARY, VARBINARY, and BLOB data types) have a character set and collation named binary. Binary strings are sequences of bytes and the numeric values of those bytes determine comparison and sort order.

Nonbinary strings (as stored using the CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT data types) have a character set and collation other than binary. A given nonbinary character set can have several collations, each of which defines a particular comparison and sort order for the characters in the set. One of these is the binary collation for the character set, indicated by a _bin suffix in the collation name. For example, the binary collations for latin1 and utf8 are named latin1_bin and utf8_bin, respectively.

The binary collation differs from the _bin collations in several respects.

The unit for comparison and sorting.  Binary strings are sequences of bytes. For the binary collation, comparison and sorting are based on numeric byte values. Nonbinary strings are sequences of characters, which might be multibyte. Collations for nonbinary strings define an ordering of the character values for comparison and sorting. For the _bin collation, this ordering is based on numeric character code values, which is similar to ordering for binary strings except that character code values might be multibyte.

Character set conversion.  A nonbinary string has a character set and is automatically converted to another character set in many cases, even when the string has a _bin collation:

  • When assigning column values from another column that has a different character set:

    UPDATE t1 SET utf8_bin_column=latin1_column;
    INSERT INTO t1 (latin1_column) SELECT utf8_bin_column FROM t2;
    
  • When assigning column values for INSERT or UPDATE using a string literal:

    SET NAMES latin1;
    INSERT INTO t1 (utf8_bin_column) VALUES ('string-in-latin1');
    
  • When sending results from the server to a client:

    SET NAMES latin1;
    SELECT utf8_bin_column FROM t2;
    

For binary string columns, no conversion occurs. For the preceding cases, the string value is copied byte-wise.

Lettercase conversion.  Collations for nonbinary character sets provide information about lettercase of characters, so characters in a nonbinary string can be converted from one lettercase to another, even for _bin collations that ignore lettercase for ordering:

mysql> SET NAMES latin1 COLLATE latin1_bin;
mysql> SELECT LOWER('aA'), UPPER('zZ');
+-------------+-------------+
| LOWER('aA') | UPPER('zZ') |
+-------------+-------------+
| aa          | ZZ          |
+-------------+-------------+

The concept of lettercase does not apply to bytes in a binary string. To perform lettercase conversion, the string must be converted to a nonbinary string:

mysql> SET NAMES binary;
mysql> SELECT LOWER('aA'), LOWER(CONVERT('aA' USING latin1));
+-------------+-----------------------------------+
| LOWER('aA') | LOWER(CONVERT('aA' USING latin1)) |
+-------------+-----------------------------------+
| aA          | aa                                |
+-------------+-----------------------------------+

Trailing space handling in comparisons.  Nonbinary strings have PADSPACE behavior for all collations, including _bin collations. Trailing spaces are insignificant in comparisons:

mysql> SET NAMES utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin;
mysql> SELECT 'a ' = 'a';
+------------+
| 'a ' = 'a' |
+------------+
|          1 |
+------------+

For binary strings, all characters are significant in comparisons, including trailing spaces:

mysql> SET NAMES binary;
mysql> SELECT 'a ' = 'a';
+------------+
| 'a ' = 'a' |
+------------+
|          0 |
+------------+

Trailing space handling for inserts and retrievals.  CHAR(N) columns store nonbinary strings. Values shorter than N characters are extended with spaces on insertion. For retrieval, trailing spaces are removed.

BINARY(N) columns store binary strings. Values shorter than N bytes are extended with 0x00 bytes on insertion. For retrieval, nothing is removed; a value of the declared length is always returned.

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
         a CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin,
         b BINARY(10)
       );
mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES ('a','a');
mysql> SELECT HEX(a), HEX(b) FROM t1;
+--------+----------------------+
| HEX(a) | HEX(b)               |
+--------+----------------------+
| 61     | 61000000000000000000 |
+--------+----------------------+

11.1.8.6 Examples of the Effect of Collation

Example 1: Sorting German Umlauts

Suppose that column X in table T has these latin1 column values:

Muffler
Müller
MX Systems
MySQL

Suppose also that the column values are retrieved using the following statement:

SELECT X FROM T ORDER BY X COLLATE collation_name;

The following table shows the resulting order of the values if we use ORDER BY with different collations.

latin1_swedish_cilatin1_german1_cilatin1_german2_ci
MufflerMufflerMüller
MX SystemsMüllerMuffler
MüllerMX SystemsMX Systems
MySQLMySQLMySQL

The character that causes the different sort orders in this example is the U with two dots over it (ü), which the Germans call U-umlaut.

  • The first column shows the result of the SELECT using the Swedish/Finnish collating rule, which says that U-umlaut sorts with Y.

  • The second column shows the result of the SELECT using the German DIN-1 rule, which says that U-umlaut sorts with U.

  • The third column shows the result of the SELECT using the German DIN-2 rule, which says that U-umlaut sorts with UE.

Example 2: Searching for German Umlauts

Suppose that you have three tables that differ only by the character set and collation used:

mysql> SET NAMES utf8;
mysql> CREATE TABLE german1 (
         c CHAR(10)
       ) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_german1_ci;
mysql> CREATE TABLE german2 (
         c CHAR(10)
       ) CHARACTER SET latin1 COLLATE latin1_german2_ci;
mysql> CREATE TABLE germanutf8 (
         c CHAR(10)
       ) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;

Each table contains two records:

mysql> INSERT INTO german1 VALUES ('Bar'), ('Bär');
mysql> INSERT INTO german2 VALUES ('Bar'), ('Bär');
mysql> INSERT INTO germanutf8 VALUES ('Bar'), ('Bär');

Two of the above collations have an A = Ä equality, and one has no such equality (latin1_german2_ci). For that reason, you'll get these results in comparisons:

mysql> SELECT * FROM german1 WHERE c = 'Bär';
+------+
| c    |
+------+
| Bar  |
| Bär  |
+------+
mysql> SELECT * FROM german2 WHERE c = 'Bär';
+------+
| c    |
+------+
| Bär  |
+------+
mysql> SELECT * FROM germanutf8 WHERE c = 'Bär';
+------+
| c    |
+------+
| Bar  |
| Bär  |
+------+

This is not a bug but rather a consequence of the sorting properties of latin1_german1_ci and utf8_unicode_ci (the sorting shown is done according to the German DIN 5007 standard).

11.1.8.7 Using Collation in INFORMATION_SCHEMA Searches

String columns in INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables have a collation of utf8_general_ci, which is case insensitive. However, for values that correspond to objects that are represented in the file system, such as databases and tables, searches in INFORMATION_SCHEMA string columns can be case sensitive or insensitive, depending on the characteristics of the underlying file system and the value of the lower_case_table_names system variable. For example, searches may be case sensitive if the file system is case sensitive. This section describes this behavior and how to modify it if necessary; see also Bug #34921.

Suppose that a query searches the SCHEMATA.SCHEMA_NAME column for the test database. On Linux, file systems are case sensitive, so comparisons of SCHEMATA.SCHEMA_NAME with 'test' match, but comparisons with 'TEST' do not:

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'test';
+-------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME |
+-------------+
| test        |
+-------------+

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'TEST';
Empty set (0.00 sec)

These results occur with the lower_case_table_names system system variable set to 0. Changing the value of lower_case_table_names to 1 or 2 causes the second query to return the same (nonempty) result as the first query.

On Windows or OS X, file systems are not case sensitive, so comparisons match both 'test' and 'TEST':

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'test';
+-------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME |
+-------------+
| test        |
+-------------+

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'TEST';
+-------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME |
+-------------+
| TEST        |
+-------------+

The value of lower_case_table_names makes no difference in this context.

The preceding behavior occurs because the utf8_general_ci collation is not used for INFORMATION_SCHEMA queries when searching for values that correspond to objects represented in the file system. It is a result of file system-scanning optimizations implemented for INFORMATION_SCHEMA searches. For information about these optimizations, see Section 9.2.3, “Optimizing INFORMATION_SCHEMA Queries”.

If the result of a string operation on an INFORMATION_SCHEMA column differs from expectations, a workaround is to use an explicit COLLATE clause to force a suitable collation (see Section 11.1.8.1, “Using COLLATE in SQL Statements”). For example, to perform a case-insensitive search, use COLLATE with the INFORMATION_SCHEMA column name:

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME COLLATE utf8_general_ci = 'test';
+-------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME |
+-------------+
| test        |
+-------------+

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME COLLATE utf8_general_ci = 'TEST';
+-------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME |
+-------------+
| test        |
+-------------+

In the preceding queries, it is important to apply the COLLATE clause to the INFORMATION_SCHEMA column name. Applying COLLATE to the comparison value has no effect.

You can also use the UPPER() or LOWER() function:

WHERE UPPER(SCHEMA_NAME) = 'TEST'
WHERE LOWER(SCHEMA_NAME) = 'test'

Although a case-insensitive comparison can be performed even on platforms with case-sensitive file systems, as just shown, it is not necessarily always the right thing to do. On such platforms, it is possible to have multiple objects with names that differ only in lettercase. For example, tables named city, CITY, and City can all exist simultaneously. Consider whether a search should match all such names or just one and write queries accordingly. The first of the following comparisons (with utf8_bin) is case sensitive; the others are not:

WHERE TABLE_NAME COLLATE utf8_bin = 'City'
WHERE TABLE_NAME COLLATE utf8_general_ci = 'city'
WHERE UPPER(TABLE_NAME) = 'CITY'
WHERE LOWER(TABLE_NAME) = 'city'

Searches in INFORMATION_SCHEMA string columns for values that refer to INFORMATION_SCHEMA itself do use the utf8_general_ci collation because INFORMATION_SCHEMA is a virtual database not represented in the file system. For example, comparisons with SCHEMATA.SCHEMA_NAME match 'information_schema' or 'INFORMATION_SCHEMA' regardless of platform:

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'information_schema';
+--------------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME        |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
+--------------------+

mysql> SELECT SCHEMA_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SCHEMATA
       WHERE SCHEMA_NAME = 'INFORMATION_SCHEMA';
+--------------------+
| SCHEMA_NAME        |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
+--------------------+

11.1.9 Unicode Support

The Unicode Standard includes characters from the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) and supplementary characters that lie outside the BMP. This section describes support for Unicode in MySQL. For information about the Unicode Standard itself, visit the Unicode Consortium Web site.

BMP characters have these characteristics:

  • Their code point values are between 0 and 65535 (or U+0000 and U+FFFF).

  • They can be encoded in a variable-length encoding using 8, 16, or 24 bits (1 to 3 bytes).

  • They can be encoded in a fixed-length encoding using 16 bits (2 bytes).

  • They are sufficient for almost all characters in major languages.

Supplementary characters lie outside the BMP. Their code point values are between U+10000 and U+10FFFF). Unicode support for supplementary characters requires character sets that have a range outside BMP characters and therefore take more space than BMP characters.

MySQL supports these Unicode character sets:

  • utf8, a UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set using one to three bytes per character.

  • ucs2, the UCS-2 encoding of the Unicode character set using two bytes per character.

  • utf8mb4, a UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set using one to four bytes per character.

  • utf16, the UTF-16 encoding for the Unicode character set using two or four bytes per character. Like ucs2 but with an extension for supplementary characters.

  • utf16le, the UTF-16LE encoding for the Unicode character set. Like utf16 but little-endian rather than big-endian.

  • utf32, the UTF-32 encoding for the Unicode character set using four bytes per character.

Table 11.2, “Unicode Character Set General Characteristics”, summarizes the general characteristics of Unicode character sets supported by MySQL.

Table 11.2 Unicode Character Set General Characteristics

Character Set Supported Characters Required Storage Per Character
utf8 BMP only 1, 2, or 3 bytes
ucs2 BMP only 2 bytes
utf8mb4 BMP and supplementary 1, 2, 3, or 4 bytes
utf16 BMP and supplementary 2 or 4 bytes
utf16le BMP and supplementary 2 or 4 bytes
utf32 BMP and supplementary 4 bytes

Characters outside the BMP compare as REPLACEMENT CHARACTER and convert to '?' when converted to a Unicode character set that supports only BMP characters (utf8 or ucs2).

If you use character sets that support supplementary characters and thus are wider than the BMP-only utf8 and ucs2 character sets, there are potential incompatibility issues for your applications; see Section 11.1.9.8, “Converting Between 3-Byte and 4-Byte Unicode Character Sets”. That section also describes how to convert tables from utf8 to the (4-byte) utf8mb4 character set, and what constraints may apply in doing so.

A similar set of collations is available for most Unicode character sets. For example, each has a Danish collation, the names of which are ucs2_danish_ci, utf16_danish_ci, utf32_danish_ci, utf8_danish_ci, and utf8mb4_danish_ci. The exception is utf16le, which has only two collations. For information about Unicode collations and their differentiating properties, including collation properties for supplementary characters, see Section 11.1.10.1, “Unicode Character Sets”.

The MySQL implementation of UCS-2, UTF-16, and UTF-32 stores characters in big-endian byte order and does not use a byte order mark (BOM) at the beginning of values. Other database systems might use little-endian byte order or a BOM. In such cases, conversion of values will need to be performed when transferring data between those systems and MySQL. The implementation of UTF-16LE is little-endian.

MySQL uses no BOM for UTF-8 values.

Client applications that communicate with the server using Unicode should set the client character set accordingly; for example, by issuing a SET NAMES 'utf8' statement. ucs2, utf16, utf16le, and utf32 cannot be used as a client character set, which means that they do not work for SET NAMES or SET CHARACTER SET. (See Section 11.1.4, “Connection Character Sets and Collations”.)

The following sections provide additional detail on the Unicode character sets in MySQL.

11.1.9.1 The utf8 Character Set (3-Byte UTF-8 Unicode Encoding)

UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format with 8-bit units) is an alternative way to store Unicode data. It is implemented according to RFC 3629, which describes encoding sequences that take from one to four bytes. (An older standard for UTF-8 encoding, RFC 2279, describes UTF-8 sequences that take from one to six bytes. RFC 3629 renders RFC 2279 obsolete; for this reason, sequences with five and six bytes are no longer used.)

The idea of UTF-8 is that various Unicode characters are encoded using byte sequences of different lengths:

  • Basic Latin letters, digits, and punctuation signs use one byte.

  • Most European and Middle East script letters fit into a 2-byte sequence: extended Latin letters (with tilde, macron, acute, grave and other accents), Cyrillic, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, and others.

  • Korean, Chinese, and Japanese ideographs use 3-byte or 4-byte sequences.

The utf8 character set in MySQL has these characteristics:

  • No support for supplementary characters (BMP characters only).

  • A maximum of three bytes per multibyte character.

Exactly the same set of characters is available in utf8 and ucs2. That is, they have the same repertoire.

Tip

To save space with UTF-8, use VARCHAR instead of CHAR. Otherwise, MySQL must reserve three bytes for each character in a CHAR CHARACTER SET utf8 column because that is the maximum possible character length. For example, MySQL must reserve 30 bytes for a CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8 column.

For additional information about data type storage, see Section 12.8, “Data Type Storage Requirements”. For information about InnoDB physical row storage, including how InnoDB tables that use COMPACT row format handle UTF-8 CHAR(N) columns internally, see Section 15.8.3, “Physical Row Structure of InnoDB Tables”.

11.1.9.2 The utf8mb3 Character Set (Alias for utf8)

The utf8 character set uses a maximum of three bytes per character. To make this character limit explicit (much as the limit of four bytes per character is explicit in the utf8mb4 character set name, use the character set name utf8mb3, which is an alias for utf8. utf8mb3 can be used in CHARACTER SET clauses, and utf8mb3_collation_substring in COLLATE clauses, where collation_substring is bin, czech_ci, danish_ci, esperanto_ci, estonian_ci, and so forth. For example:

CREATE TABLE t (s1 CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET utf8mb3;
SELECT * FROM t WHERE s1 COLLATE utf8mb3_general_ci = 'x';
DECLARE x VARCHAR(5) CHARACTER SET utf8mb3 COLLATE utf8mb3_danish_ci;
SELECT CAST('a' AS CHAR CHARACTER SET utf8) COLLATE utf8_czech_ci;

MySQL immediately converts instances of utf8mb3 in an alias to utf8, so in statements such as SHOW CREATE TABLE or SELECT CHARACTER_SET_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS or SELECT COLLATION_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS, users will see the true name, utf8 or utf8_collation_substring.

The utf8mb3 alias is also valid in certain places other than CHARACTER SET clauses. For example, these are legal:

mysqld --character-set-server=utf8mb3
SET NAMES 'utf8mb3'; /* and other SET statements that have similar effect */
SELECT _utf8mb3 'a';

There is no utf8mb3 alias for the corresponding utf8 collation for collation names that include a version number to indicate the Unicode Collation Algorithm version on which the collation is based (for example, utf8_unicode_520_ci).

11.1.9.3 The utf8mb4 Character Set (4-Byte UTF-8 Unicode Encoding)

The character set named utf8 uses a maximum of three bytes per character and contains only BMP characters. The utf8mb4 character set uses a maximum of four bytes per character supports supplementary characters:

  • For a BMP character, utf8 and utf8mb4 have identical storage characteristics: same code values, same encoding, same length.

  • For a supplementary character, utf8 cannot store the character at all, whereas utf8mb4 requires four bytes to store it. Because utf8 cannot store the character at all, you have no supplementary characters in utf8 columns and need not worry about converting characters or losing data when upgrading utf8 data from older versions of MySQL.

utf8mb4 is a superset of utf8, so for an operation such as the following concatenation, the result has character set utf8mb4 and the collation of utf8mb4_col:

SELECT CONCAT(utf8_col, utf8mb4_col);

Similarly, the following comparison in the WHERE clause works according to the collation of utf8mb4_col:

SELECT * FROM utf8_tbl, utf8mb4_tbl
WHERE utf8_tbl.utf8_col = utf8mb4_tbl.utf8mb4_col;

Tip: To save space with utf8mb4, use VARCHAR instead of CHAR. Otherwise, MySQL must reserve four bytes for each character in a CHAR CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 column because that is the maximum possible length. For example, MySQL must reserve 40 bytes for a CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 column.

11.1.9.4 The ucs2 Character Set (UCS-2 Unicode Encoding)

In UCS-2, every character is represented by a 2-byte Unicode code with the most significant byte first. For example: LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A has the code 0x0041 and it is stored as a 2-byte sequence: 0x00 0x41. CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU (Unicode 0x044B) is stored as a 2-byte sequence: 0x04 0x4B. For Unicode characters and their codes, please refer to the Unicode Consortium Web site.

In MySQL, the ucs2 character set is a fixed-length 16-bit encoding for Unicode BMP characters.

11.1.9.5 The utf16 Character Set (UTF-16 Unicode Encoding)

The utf16 character set is the ucs2 character set with an extension that enables encoding of supplementary characters:

  • For a BMP character, utf16 and ucs2 have identical storage characteristics: same code values, same encoding, same length.

  • For a supplementary character, utf16 has a special sequence for representing the character using 32 bits. This is called the surrogate mechanism: For a number greater than 0xffff, take 10 bits and add them to 0xd800 and put them in the first 16-bit word, take 10 more bits and add them to 0xdc00 and put them in the next 16-bit word. Consequently, all supplementary characters require 32 bits, where the first 16 bits are a number between 0xd800 and 0xdbff, and the last 16 bits are a number between 0xdc00 and 0xdfff. Examples are in Section 15.5 Surrogates Area of the Unicode 4.0 document.

Because utf16 supports surrogates and ucs2 does not, there is a validity check that applies only in utf16: You cannot insert a top surrogate without a bottom surrogate, or vice versa. For example:

INSERT INTO t (ucs2_column) VALUES (0xd800); /* legal */
INSERT INTO t (utf16_column)VALUES (0xd800); /* illegal */

There is no validity check for characters that are technically valid but are not true Unicode (that is, characters that Unicode considers to be unassigned code points or private use characters or even illegals like 0xffff). For example, since U+F8FF is the Apple Logo, this is legal:

INSERT INTO t (utf16_column)VALUES (0xf8ff); /* legal */

Such characters cannot be expected to mean the same thing to everyone.

Because MySQL must allow for the worst case (that one character requires four bytes) the maximum length of a utf16 column or index is only half of the maximum length for a ucs2 column or index. For example, the maximum length of a MEMORY table index key is 3072 bytes, so these statements create tables with the longest permitted indexes for ucs2 and utf16 columns:

CREATE TABLE tf (s1 VARCHAR(1536) CHARACTER SET ucs2) ENGINE=MEMORY;
CREATE INDEX i ON tf (s1);
CREATE TABLE tg (s1 VARCHAR(768) CHARACTER SET utf16) ENGINE=MEMORY;
CREATE INDEX i ON tg (s1);

11.1.9.6 The utf16le Character Set (UTF-16LE Unicode Encoding)

This is the same as utf16 but is little-endian rather than big-endian.

11.1.9.7 The utf32 Character Set (UTF-32 Unicode Encoding)

The utf32 character set is fixed length (like ucs2 and unlike utf16). utf32 uses 32 bits for every character, unlike ucs2 (which uses 16 bits for every character), and unlike utf16 (which uses 16 bits for some characters and 32 bits for others).

utf32 takes twice as much space as ucs2 and more space than utf16, but utf32 has the same advantage as ucs2 that it is predictable for storage: The required number of bytes for utf32 equals the number of characters times 4. Also, unlike utf16, there are no tricks for encoding in utf32, so the stored value equals the code value.

To demonstrate how the latter advantage is useful, here is an example that shows how to determine a utf8mb4 value given the utf32 code value:

/* Assume code value = 100cc LINEAR B WHEELED CHARIOT */
CREATE TABLE tmp (utf32_col CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET utf32,
                  utf8mb4_col CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4);
INSERT INTO tmp VALUES (0x000100cc,NULL);
UPDATE tmp SET utf8mb4_col = utf32_col;
SELECT HEX(utf32_col),HEX(utf8mb4_col) FROM tmp;

MySQL is very forgiving about additions of unassigned Unicode characters or private-use-area characters. There is in fact only one validity check for utf32: No code value may be greater than 0x10ffff. For example, this is illegal:

INSERT INTO t (utf32_column) VALUES (0x110000); /* illegal */

11.1.9.8 Converting Between 3-Byte and 4-Byte Unicode Character Sets

This section describes issues that you may face when converting from the utf8 character set to the utf8mb4 character set, or vice versa.

Note

The discussion here focuses primarily on converting between utf8 and utf8mb4, but similar principles apply to converting between the ucs2 character set and character sets such as utf16 or utf32.

The utf8 and utf8mb4 character sets differ as follows:

  • utf8 supports only characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP). utf8mb4 additionally supports supplementary characters that lie outside the BMP.

  • utf8 uses a maximum of three bytes per character. utf8mb4 uses a maximum of four bytes per character.

One advantage of converting from ut8 to utf8mb4 is that this enables applications to use supplementary characters. One tradeoff is that this may increase data storage space requirements.

In most respects, converting from utf8 to utf8mb4 should present few problems. These are the primary potential areas of incompatibility:

  • For the variable-length character data types (VARCHAR and the TEXT types), the maximum permitted length in characters is less for utf8mb4 columns than for utf8 columns.

  • For all character data types (CHAR, VARCHAR, and the TEXT types), the maximum number of characters that can be indexed is less for utf8mb4 columns than for utf8 columns.

Consequently, to convert tables from utf8 to utf8mb4, it may be necessary to change some column or index definitions.

Tables can be converted from utf8 to utf8mb4 by using ALTER TABLE. Suppose that a table was originally defined as follows:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  col1 CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci NOT NULL,
  col2 CHAR(10) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL
) CHARACTER SET utf8;

The following statement converts t1 to use utf8mb4:

ALTER TABLE t1
  DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4,
  MODIFY col1 CHAR(10)
    CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_unicode_ci NOT NULL,
  MODIFY col2 CHAR(10)
    CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_bin NOT NULL;

In terms of table content, conversion from utf8 to utf8mb4 presents no problems:

  • For a BMP character, utf8 and utf8mb4 have identical storage characteristics: same code values, same encoding, same length.

  • For a supplementary character, utf8 cannot store the character at all, whereas utf8mb4 requires four bytes. Because utf8 cannot store the character at all, utf8 columns have no supplementary characters and you need not worry about converting characters or losing data when converting to utf8mb4.

In terms of table structure, the catch when converting from utf8 to utf8mb4 is that the maximum length of a column or index key is unchanged in terms of bytes. Therefore, it is smaller in terms of characters because the maximum length of a character is four bytes instead of three. For the CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT data types, watch for these issues when converting your MySQL tables:

  • Check all definitions of utf8 columns and make sure they will not exceed the maximum length for the storage engine.

  • Check all indexes on utf8 columns and make sure they will not exceed the maximum length for the storage engine. Sometimes the maximum can change due to storage engine enhancements.

If the preceding conditions apply, you must either reduce the defined length of columns or indexes, or continue to use utf8 rather than utf8mb4.

Here are some examples where structural changes may be needed:

  • A TINYTEXT column can hold up to 255 bytes, so it can hold up to 85 3-byte or 63 4-byte characters. Suppose that you have a TINYTEXT column that uses utf8 but must be able to contain more than 63 characters. You cannot convert it to utf8mb4 unless you also change the data type to a longer type such as TEXT.

    Similarly, a very long VARCHAR column may need to be changed to one of the longer TEXT types if you want to convert it from utf8 to utf8mb4.

  • InnoDB has a maximum index length of 767 bytes for tables that use COMPACT or REDUNDANT row format, so for utf8 or utf8mb4 columns, you can index a maximum of 255 or 191 characters, respectively. If you currently have utf8 columns with indexes longer than 191 characters, you must index a smaller number of characters.

    In an InnoDB table that uses COMPACT or REDUNDANT row format, these column and index definitions are legal:

    col1 VARCHAR(500) CHARACTER SET utf8, INDEX (col1(255))
    

    To use utf8mb4 instead, the index must be smaller:

    col1 VARCHAR(500) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4, INDEX (col1(191))
    
    Note

    For InnoDB tables that use COMPRESSED or DYNAMIC row format, you can enable the innodb_large_prefix option to permit index key prefixes longer than 767 bytes (up to 3072 bytes). Creating such tables also requires the option values innodb_file_format=barracuda and innodb_file_per_table=true.) In this case, enabling the innodb_large_prefix option enables you to index a maximum of 1024 or 768 characters for utf8 or utf8mb4 columns, respectively. For related information, see Section 15.8.8, “Limits on InnoDB Tables”.

The preceding types of changes are most likely to be required only if you have very long columns or indexes. Otherwise, you should be able to convert your tables from utf8 to utf8mb4 without problems, using ALTER TABLE as described previously.

The following items summarize other potential areas of incompatibility:

  • Performance of 4-byte UTF-8 (utf8mb4) is slower than for 3-byte UTF-8 (utf8). To avoid this penalty, continue to use utf8.

  • SET NAMES 'utf8mb4' causes use of the 4-byte character set for connection character sets. As long as no 4-byte characters are sent from the server, there should be no problems. Otherwise, applications that expect to receive a maximum of three bytes per character may have problems. Conversely, applications that expect to send 4-byte characters must ensure that the server understands them. More generally, applications cannot send utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, or utf32 data to an older server that does not understand it:

    • utf8mb4, utf16, and utf32 are not recognized before MySQL 5.5.3.

    • utf16le is not recognized before MySQL 5.6.1.

  • For replication, if character sets that support supplementary characters are to be used on the master, all slaves must understand them as well. If you attempt to replicate from a newer master to an older slave, utf8 data will be seen as utf8 by the slave and should replicate correctly. But you cannot send utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, or utf32 data to an older slave that does not understand it:

    • utf8mb4, utf16, and utf32 are not recognized before MySQL 5.5.3.

    • utf16le is not recognized before MySQL 5.6.1.

    Also, keep in mind the general principle that if a table has different definitions on the master and slave, this can lead to unexpected results. For example, the differences in maximum index key length make it risky to use utf8 on the master and utf8mb4 on the slave.

If you have converted to utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, or utf32, and then decide to convert back to utf8 or ucs2 (for example, to downgrade to an older version of MySQL), these considerations apply:

  • utf8 and ucs2 data should present no problems.

  • The server must be recent enough to recognize definitions referring to the character set from which you are converting.

  • For object definitions that refer to the utf8mb4 character set, you can dump them with mysqldump prior to downgrading, edit the dump file to change instances of utf8mb4 to utf8, and reload the file in the older server, as long as there are no 4-byte characters in the data. The older server will see utf8 in the dump file object definitions and create new objects that use the (3-byte) utf8 character set.

11.1.10 Supported Character Sets and Collations

This section indicates which character sets MySQL supports. There is one subsection for each group of related character sets. For each character set, the permissible collations are listed.

To list the available character sets and their default collations, use the SHOW CHARACTER SET statement or query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS table. For example:

mysql> SHOW CHARACTER SET;
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| Charset  | Description                     | Default collation   | Maxlen |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| big5     | Big5 Traditional Chinese        | big5_chinese_ci     |      2 |
| dec8     | DEC West European               | dec8_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| cp850    | DOS West European               | cp850_general_ci    |      1 |
| hp8      | HP West European                | hp8_english_ci      |      1 |
| koi8r    | KOI8-R Relcom Russian           | koi8r_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin1   | cp1252 West European            | latin1_swedish_ci   |      1 |
| latin2   | ISO 8859-2 Central European     | latin2_general_ci   |      1 |
| swe7     | 7bit Swedish                    | swe7_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| ascii    | US ASCII                        | ascii_general_ci    |      1 |
| ujis     | EUC-JP Japanese                 | ujis_japanese_ci    |      3 |
| sjis     | Shift-JIS Japanese              | sjis_japanese_ci    |      2 |
| hebrew   | ISO 8859-8 Hebrew               | hebrew_general_ci   |      1 |
| tis620   | TIS620 Thai                     | tis620_thai_ci      |      1 |
| euckr    | EUC-KR Korean                   | euckr_korean_ci     |      2 |
| koi8u    | KOI8-U Ukrainian                | koi8u_general_ci    |      1 |
| gb2312   | GB2312 Simplified Chinese       | gb2312_chinese_ci   |      2 |
| greek    | ISO 8859-7 Greek                | greek_general_ci    |      1 |
| cp1250   | Windows Central European        | cp1250_general_ci   |      1 |
| gbk      | GBK Simplified Chinese          | gbk_chinese_ci      |      2 |
| latin5   | ISO 8859-9 Turkish              | latin5_turkish_ci   |      1 |
| armscii8 | ARMSCII-8 Armenian              | armscii8_general_ci |      1 |
| utf8     | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8_general_ci     |      3 |
| ucs2     | UCS-2 Unicode                   | ucs2_general_ci     |      2 |
| cp866    | DOS Russian                     | cp866_general_ci    |      1 |
| keybcs2  | DOS Kamenicky Czech-Slovak      | keybcs2_general_ci  |      1 |
| macce    | Mac Central European            | macce_general_ci    |      1 |
| macroman | Mac West European               | macroman_general_ci |      1 |
| cp852    | DOS Central European            | cp852_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin7   | ISO 8859-13 Baltic              | latin7_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf8mb4  | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8mb4_general_ci  |      4 |
| cp1251   | Windows Cyrillic                | cp1251_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf16    | UTF-16 Unicode                  | utf16_general_ci    |      4 |
| utf16le  | UTF-16LE Unicode                | utf16le_general_ci  |      4 |
| cp1256   | Windows Arabic                  | cp1256_general_ci   |      1 |
| cp1257   | Windows Baltic                  | cp1257_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf32    | UTF-32 Unicode                  | utf32_general_ci    |      4 |
| binary   | Binary pseudo charset           | binary              |      1 |
| geostd8  | GEOSTD8 Georgian                | geostd8_general_ci  |      1 |
| cp932    | SJIS for Windows Japanese       | cp932_japanese_ci   |      2 |
| eucjpms  | UJIS for Windows Japanese       | eucjpms_japanese_ci |      3 |
| gb18030  | China National Standard GB18030 | gb18030_chinese_ci  |      4 |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+

In cases where a character set has multiple collations, it might not be clear which collation is most suitable for a given application. To avoid choosing the wrong collation, it can be helpful to perform some comparisons with representative data values to make sure that a given collation sorts values the way you expect.

11.1.10.1 Unicode Character Sets

MySQL supports multiple Unicode character sets:

  • utf8, a UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set using one to three bytes per character.

  • ucs2, the UCS-2 encoding of the Unicode character set using two bytes per character.

  • utf8mb4, a UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set using one to four bytes per character.

  • utf16, the UTF-16 encoding for the Unicode character set using two or four bytes per character. Like ucs2 but with an extension for supplementary characters.

  • utf16le, the UTF-16LE encoding for the Unicode character set. Like utf16 but little-endian rather than big-endian.

  • utf32, the UTF-32 encoding for the Unicode character set using four bytes per character.

utf8 and ucs2 support Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) characters. utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, and utf32 support BMP and supplementary characters.

This section describes the collations available for Unicode character sets and their differentiating properties. For general information about Unicode, see Section 11.1.9, “Unicode Support”.

Most Unicode character sets have a general collection (indicated by _general in the name or by the absence of a language specifier), a binary collation (indicated by _bin in the name), and several language-specific collations (indicated by language specifiers). For example, for utf8, utf8_general_ci and utf8_bin are its general and binary collations, and utf8_danish_ci is one of its language-specific collations.

Collation support for utf16le is limited. The only collations available are utf16le_general_ci and utf16le_bin. These are similar to utf16_general_ci and utf16_bin.

A language name shown in the following table indicates a language-specific collation. Unicode character sets may include collations for one or more of these languages.

Table 11.3 Unicode Collation Language Specifiers

Language Language Specifier
Classical Latin roman
Croatian croatian
Czech czech
Danish danish
Esperanto esperanto
Estonian estonian
German phone book order german2
Hungarian hungarian
Icelandic icelandic
Latvian latvian
Lithuanian lithuanian
Persian persian
Polish polish
Romanian romanian
Sinhala sinhala
Slovak slovak
Slovenian slovenian
Modern Spanish spanish
Traditional Spanish spanish2
Swedish swedish
Turkish turkish
Vietnamese vietnamese

Croatian collations are tailored for these Croatian letters: Č, Ć, , Đ, Lj, Nj, Š, Ž.

Danish collations may also be used for Norwegian.

For Classical Latin collations, I and J compare as equal, and U and V compare as equal.

Spanish collations are available for modern and traditional Spanish. For both, ñ (n-tilde) is a separate letter between n and o. In addition, for traditional Spanish, ch is a separate letter between c and d, and ll is a separate letter between l and m.

Traditional Spanish collations may also be used for Asturian and Galician.

Swedish collations include Swedish rules. For example, in Swedish, the following relationship holds, which is not something expected by a German or French speaker:

Ü = Y < Ö

For questions about particular language orderings, unicode.org provides Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR) collation charts at http://www.unicode.org/cldr/charts/30/collation/index.html.

The xxx_general_mysql500_ci collations preserve the pre-5.1.24 ordering of the original xxx_general_ci collations and permit upgrades for tables created before MySQL 5.1.24. For more information, see Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”, and Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

MySQL implements the xxx_unicode_ci collations according to the Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA) described at http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr10/. The collation uses the version-4.0.0 UCA weight keys: http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCA/4.0.0/allkeys-4.0.0.txt. The xxx_unicode_ci collations have only partial support for the Unicode Collation Algorithm. Some characters are not supported, and combining marks are not fully supported. This affects primarily Vietnamese, Yoruba, and some smaller languages such as Navajo. A combined character is considered different from the same character written with a single unicode character in string comparisons, and the two characters are considered to have a different length (for example, as returned by the CHAR_LENGTH() function or in result set metadata).

Unicode collations based on UCA versions later than 4.0.0 include the version in the collation name. Thus, utf8_unicode_520_ci is based on UCA 5.2.0 weight keys (http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCA/5.2.0/allkeys.txt). For collations of utf8 that include a UCA version, there is no utf8mb3 alias; see Section 11.1.9.2, “The utf8mb3 Character Set (Alias for utf8)”.

MySQL implements language-specific Unicode collations if the ordering based only on UCA does not work well for a language. Language-specific collations are UCA-based, with additional language tailoring rules.

LOWER() and UPPER() perform case folding according to the collation of their argument. A character that has uppercase and lowercase versions only in a Unicode version more recent than 4.0.0 is converted by these functions only if the argument has a collation that uses a recent enough UCA version.

For any Unicode character set, operations performed using the xxx_general_ci collation are faster than those for the xxx_unicode_ci collation. For example, comparisons for the utf8_general_ci collation are faster, but slightly less correct, than comparisons for utf8_unicode_ci. The reason for this is that utf8_unicode_ci supports mappings such as expansions; that is, when one character compares as equal to combinations of other characters. For example, in German and some other languages ß is equal to ss. utf8_unicode_ci also supports contractions and ignorable characters. utf8_general_ci is a legacy collation that does not support expansions, contractions, or ignorable characters. It can make only one-to-one comparisons between characters.

To further illustrate, the following equalities hold in both utf8_general_ci and utf8_unicode_ci (for the effect of this in comparisons or searches, see Section 11.1.8.6, “Examples of the Effect of Collation”):

Ä = A
Ö = O
Ü = U

A difference between the collations is that this is true for utf8_general_ci:

ß = s

Whereas this is true for utf8_unicode_ci, which supports the German DIN-1 ordering (also known as dictionary order):

ß = ss

MySQL implements utf8 language-specific collations if the ordering with utf8_unicode_ci does not work well for a language. For example, utf8_unicode_ci works fine for German dictionary order and French, so there is no need to create special utf8 collations.

utf8_general_ci also is satisfactory for both German and French, except that ß is equal to s, and not to ss. If this is acceptable for your application, you should use utf8_general_ci because it is faster. If this is not acceptable (for example, if you require German dictionary order), use utf8_unicode_ci because it is more accurate.

If you require German DIN-2 (phone book) ordering, use the utf8_german2_ci collation, which compares the following sets of characters equal:

Ä = Æ = AE
Ö = Œ = OE
Ü = UE
ß = ss

utf8_german2_ci is similar to latin1_german2_ci, but the latter does not compare Æ equal to AE or Œ equal to OE. There is no utf8_german_ci corresponding to latin1_german_ci for German dictionary order because utf8_general_ci suffices.

For all Unicode collations except the binary (_bin) collations, MySQL performs a table lookup to find a character's collating weight. This weight can be displayed using the WEIGHT_STRING() function. (See Section 13.5, “String Functions”.) If a character is not in the table (for example, because it is a new character), collating weight determination becomes more complex:

  • For BMP characters in general collations (xxx_general_ci), weight = code point.

  • For BMP characters in UCA collations (for example, xxx_unicode_ci and language-specific collations), the following algorithm applies:

    if (code >= 0x3400 && code <= 0x4DB5)
      base= 0xFB80; /* CJK Ideograph Extension */
    else if (code >= 0x4E00 && code <= 0x9FA5)
      base= 0xFB40; /* CJK Ideograph */
    else
      base= 0xFBC0; /* All other characters */
    aaaa= base +  (code >> 15);
    bbbb= (code & 0x7FFF) | 0x8000;
    

    The result is a sequence of two collating elements, aaaa followed by bbbb. For example:

    mysql> SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(_ucs2 0x04CF COLLATE ucs2_unicode_ci));
    +----------------------------------------------------------+
    | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(_ucs2 0x04CF COLLATE ucs2_unicode_ci)) |
    +----------------------------------------------------------+
    | FBC084CF                                                 |
    +----------------------------------------------------------+
    

    Thus, U+04cf CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PALOCHKA is, with all UCA 4.0.0 collations, greater than U+04c0 CYRILLIC LETTER PALOCHKA. With UCA 5.2.0 collations, all palochkas sort together.

  • For supplementary characters in general collations, the weight is the weight for 0xfffd REPLACEMENT CHARACTER. For supplementary characters in UCA 4.0.0 collations, their collating weight is 0xfffd. That is, to MySQL, all supplementary characters are equal to each other, and greater than almost all BMP characters.

    An example with Deseret characters and COUNT(DISTINCT):

    CREATE TABLE t (s1 VARCHAR(5) CHARACTER SET utf32 COLLATE utf32_unicode_ci);
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0xfffd);   /* REPLACEMENT CHARACTER */
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0x010412); /* DESERET CAPITAL LETTER BEE */
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0x010413); /* DESERET CAPITAL LETTER TEE */
    SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT s1) FROM t;
    

    The result is 2 because in the MySQL xxx_unicode_ci collations, the replacement character has a weight of 0x0dc6, whereas Deseret Bee and Deseret Tee both have a weight of 0xfffd. (Were the utf32_general_ci collation used instead, the result is 1 because all three characters have a weight of 0xfffd in that collation.)

    An example with cuneiform characters and WEIGHT_STRING():

    /*
    The four characters in the INSERT string are
    00000041  # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A
    0001218F  # CUNEIFORM SIGN KAB
    000121A7  # CUNEIFORM SIGN KISH
    00000042  # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B
    */
    CREATE TABLE t (s1 CHAR(4) CHARACTER SET utf32 COLLATE utf32_unicode_ci);
    INSERT INTO t VALUES (0x000000410001218f000121a700000042);
    SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(s1)) FROM t;
    

    The result is:

    0E33 FFFD FFFD 0E4A
    

    0E33 and 0E4A are primary weights as in UCA 4.0.0. FFFD is the weight for KAB and also for KISH.

    The rule that all supplementary characters are equal to each other is nonoptimal but is not expected to cause trouble. These characters are very rare, so it is very rare that a multi-character string consists entirely of supplementary characters. In Japan, since the supplementary characters are obscure Kanji ideographs, the typical user does not care what order they are in, anyway. If you really want rows sorted by the MySQL rule and secondarily by code point value, it is easy:

    ORDER BY s1 COLLATE utf32_unicode_ci, s1 COLLATE utf32_bin
    
  • For supplementary characters based on UCA versions higher than 4.0.0 (for example, xxx_unicode_520_ci), supplementary characters do not necessarily all have the same collation weight. Some have explicit weights from the UCA allkeys.txt file. Others have weights calculated from this algorithm:

    aaaa= base +  (code >> 15);
    bbbb= (code & 0x7FFF) | 0x8000;
    

There is a difference between ordering by the character's code value and ordering by the character's binary representation, a difference that appears only with utf16_bin, because of surrogates.

Suppose that utf16_bin (the binary collation for utf16) was a binary comparison byte by byte rather than character by character. If that were so, the order of characters in utf16_bin would differ from the order in utf8_bin. For example, the following chart shows two rare characters. The first character is in the range E000-FFFF, so it is greater than a surrogate but less than a supplementary. The second character is a supplementary.

Code point  Character                    utf8         utf16
----------  ---------                    ----         -----
0FF9D       HALFWIDTH KATAKANA LETTER N  EF BE 9D     FF 9D
10384       UGARITIC LETTER DELTA        F0 90 8E 84  D8 00 DF 84

The two characters in the chart are in order by code point value because 0xff9d < 0x10384. And they are in order by utf8 value because 0xef < 0xf0. But they are not in order by utf16 value, if we use byte-by-byte comparison, because 0xff > 0xd8.

So MySQL's utf16_bin collation is not byte by byte. It is by code point. When MySQL sees a supplementary-character encoding in utf16, it converts to the character's code-point value, and then compares. Therefore, utf8_bin and utf16_bin are the same ordering. This is consistent with the SQL:2008 standard requirement for a UCS_BASIC collation: UCS_BASIC is a collation in which the ordering is determined entirely by the Unicode scalar values of the characters in the strings being sorted. It is applicable to the UCS character repertoire. Since every character repertoire is a subset of the UCS repertoire, the UCS_BASIC collation is potentially applicable to every character set. NOTE 11: The Unicode scalar value of a character is its code point treated as an unsigned integer.

If the character set is ucs2, comparison is byte-by-byte, but ucs2 strings should not contain surrogates, anyway.

11.1.10.2 West European Character Sets

Western European character sets cover most West European languages, such as French, Spanish, Catalan, Basque, Portuguese, Italian, Albanian, Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Faroese, Icelandic, Irish, Scottish, and English.

  • ascii (US ASCII) collations:

    • ascii_bin

    • ascii_general_ci (default)

  • cp850 (DOS West European) collations:

    • cp850_bin

    • cp850_general_ci (default)

  • dec8 (DEC Western European) collations:

    • dec8_bin

    • dec8_swedish_ci (default)

  • hp8 (HP Western European) collations:

    • hp8_bin

    • hp8_english_ci (default)

  • latin1 (cp1252 West European) collations:

    • latin1_bin

    • latin1_danish_ci

    • latin1_general_ci

    • latin1_general_cs

    • latin1_german1_ci

    • latin1_german2_ci

    • latin1_spanish_ci

    • latin1_swedish_ci (default)

    latin1 is the default character set. MySQL's latin1 is the same as the Windows cp1252 character set. This means it is the same as the official ISO 8859-1 or IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) latin1, except that IANA latin1 treats the code points between 0x80 and 0x9f as undefined, whereas cp1252, and therefore MySQL's latin1, assign characters for those positions. For example, 0x80 is the Euro sign. For the undefined entries in cp1252, MySQL translates 0x81 to Unicode 0x0081, 0x8d to 0x008d, 0x8f to 0x008f, 0x90 to 0x0090, and 0x9d to 0x009d.

    The latin1_swedish_ci collation is the default that probably is used by the majority of MySQL customers. Although it is frequently said that it is based on the Swedish/Finnish collation rules, there are Swedes and Finns who disagree with this statement.

    The latin1_german1_ci and latin1_german2_ci collations are based on the DIN-1 and DIN-2 standards, where DIN stands for Deutsches Institut für Normung (the German equivalent of ANSI). DIN-1 is called the dictionary collation and DIN-2 is called the phone book collation. For an example of the effect this has in comparisons or when doing searches, see Section 11.1.8.6, “Examples of the Effect of Collation”.

    • latin1_german1_ci (dictionary) rules:

      Ä = A
      Ö = O
      Ü = U
      ß = s
      
    • latin1_german2_ci (phone-book) rules:

      Ä = AE
      Ö = OE
      Ü = UE
      ß = ss
      

    In the latin1_spanish_ci collation, ñ (n-tilde) is a separate letter between n and o.

  • macroman (Mac West European) collations:

    • macroman_bin

    • macroman_general_ci (default)

  • swe7 (7bit Swedish) collations:

    • swe7_bin

    • swe7_swedish_ci (default)

11.1.10.3 Central European Character Sets

MySQL provides some support for character sets used in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Poland, and Serbia (Latin).

  • cp1250 (Windows Central European) collations:

    • cp1250_bin

    • cp1250_croatian_ci

    • cp1250_czech_cs

    • cp1250_general_ci (default)

    • cp1250_polish_ci

  • cp852 (DOS Central European) collations:

    • cp852_bin

    • cp852_general_ci (default)

  • keybcs2 (DOS Kamenicky Czech-Slovak) collations:

    • keybcs2_bin

    • keybcs2_general_ci (default)

  • latin2 (ISO 8859-2 Central European) collations:

    • latin2_bin

    • latin2_croatian_ci

    • latin2_czech_cs

    • latin2_general_ci (default)

    • latin2_hungarian_ci

  • macce (Mac Central European) collations:

    • macce_bin

    • macce_general_ci (default)

11.1.10.4 South European and Middle East Character Sets

South European and Middle Eastern character sets supported by MySQL include Armenian, Arabic, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, and Turkish.

  • armscii8 (ARMSCII-8 Armenian) collations:

    • armscii8_bin

    • armscii8_general_ci (default)

  • cp1256 (Windows Arabic) collations:

    • cp1256_bin

    • cp1256_general_ci (default)

  • geostd8 (GEOSTD8 Georgian) collations:

    • geostd8_bin

    • geostd8_general_ci (default)

  • greek (ISO 8859-7 Greek) collations:

    • greek_bin

    • greek_general_ci (default)

  • hebrew (ISO 8859-8 Hebrew) collations:

    • hebrew_bin

    • hebrew_general_ci (default)

  • latin5 (ISO 8859-9 Turkish) collations:

    • latin5_bin

    • latin5_turkish_ci (default)

11.1.10.5 Baltic Character Sets

The Baltic character sets cover Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian languages.

  • cp1257 (Windows Baltic) collations:

    • cp1257_bin

    • cp1257_general_ci (default)

    • cp1257_lithuanian_ci

  • latin7 (ISO 8859-13 Baltic) collations:

    • latin7_bin

    • latin7_estonian_cs

    • latin7_general_ci (default)

    • latin7_general_cs

11.1.10.6 Cyrillic Character Sets

The Cyrillic character sets and collations are for use with Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, and Serbian (Cyrillic) languages.

  • cp1251 (Windows Cyrillic) collations:

    • cp1251_bin

    • cp1251_bulgarian_ci

    • cp1251_general_ci (default)

    • cp1251_general_cs

    • cp1251_ukrainian_ci

  • cp866 (DOS Russian) collations:

    • cp866_bin

    • cp866_general_ci (default)

  • koi8r (KOI8-R Relcom Russian) collations:

    • koi8r_bin

    • koi8r_general_ci (default)

  • koi8u (KOI8-U Ukrainian) collations:

    • koi8u_bin

    • koi8u_general_ci (default)

11.1.10.7 Asian Character Sets

The Asian character sets that we support include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Thai. These can be complicated. For example, the Chinese sets must allow for thousands of different characters. See Section 11.1.10.7.1, “The cp932 Character Set”, for additional information about the cp932 and sjis character sets. See Section 11.1.10.7.2, “The gb18030 Character Set”, for additional information about character set support for the Chinese National Standard GB 18030.

For answers to some common questions and problems relating support for Asian character sets in MySQL, see Section A.11, “MySQL 5.7 FAQ: MySQL Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Character Sets”.

  • big5 (Big5 Traditional Chinese) collations:

    • big5_bin

    • big5_chinese_ci (default)

  • cp932 (SJIS for Windows Japanese) collations:

    • cp932_bin

    • cp932_japanese_ci (default)

  • eucjpms (UJIS for Windows Japanese) collations:

    • eucjpms_bin

    • eucjpms_japanese_ci (default)

  • euckr (EUC-KR Korean) collations:

    • euckr_bin

    • euckr_korean_ci (default)

  • gb2312 (GB2312 Simplified Chinese) collations:

    • gb2312_bin

    • gb2312_chinese_ci (default)

  • gbk (GBK Simplified Chinese) collations:

    • gbk_bin

    • gbk_chinese_ci (default)

  • gb18030 (China National Standard GB18030) collations:

    • gb18030_bin

    • gb18030_chinese_ci (default)

    • gb18030_unicode_520_ci

  • sjis (Shift-JIS Japanese) collations:

    • sjis_bin

    • sjis_japanese_ci (default)

  • tis620 (TIS620 Thai) collations:

    • tis620_bin

    • tis620_thai_ci (default)

  • ujis (EUC-JP Japanese) collations:

    • ujis_bin

    • ujis_japanese_ci (default)

The big5_chinese_ci collation sorts on number of strokes.

11.1.10.7.1 The cp932 Character Set

Why is cp932 needed?

In MySQL, the sjis character set corresponds to the Shift_JIS character set defined by IANA, which supports JIS X0201 and JIS X0208 characters. (See http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets.)

However, the meaning of SHIFT JIS as a descriptive term has become very vague and it often includes the extensions to Shift_JIS that are defined by various vendors.

For example, SHIFT JIS used in Japanese Windows environments is a Microsoft extension of Shift_JIS and its exact name is Microsoft Windows Codepage : 932 or cp932. In addition to the characters supported by Shift_JIS, cp932 supports extension characters such as NEC special characters, NEC selected—IBM extended characters, and IBM selected characters.

Many Japanese users have experienced problems using these extension characters. These problems stem from the following factors:

  • MySQL automatically converts character sets.

  • Character sets are converted using Unicode (ucs2).

  • The sjis character set does not support the conversion of these extension characters.

  • There are several conversion rules from so-called SHIFT JIS to Unicode, and some characters are converted to Unicode differently depending on the conversion rule. MySQL supports only one of these rules (described later).

The MySQL cp932 character set is designed to solve these problems.

Because MySQL supports character set conversion, it is important to separate IANA Shift_JIS and cp932 into two different character sets because they provide different conversion rules.

How does cp932 differ from sjis?

The cp932 character set differs from sjis in the following ways:

For some characters, conversion to and from ucs2 is different for sjis and cp932. The following tables illustrate these differences.

Conversion to ucs2:

sjis/cp932 Valuesjis -> ucs2 Conversioncp932 -> ucs2 Conversion
5C005C005C
7E007E007E
815C20152015
815F005CFF3C
8160301CFF5E
816120162225
817C2212FF0D
819100A2FFE0
819200A3FFE1
81CA00ACFFE2

Conversion from ucs2:

ucs2 valueucs2 -> sjis Conversionucs2 -> cp932 Conversion
005C815F5C
007E7E7E
00A281913F
00A381923F
00AC81CA3F
2015815C815C
201681613F
2212817C3F
22253F8161
301C81603F
FF0D3F817C
FF3C3F815F
FF5E3F8160
FFE03F8191
FFE13F8192
FFE23F81CA

Users of any Japanese character sets should be aware that using --character-set-client-handshake (or --skip-character-set-client-handshake) has an important effect. See Section 6.1.4, “Server Command Options”.

11.1.10.7.2 The gb18030 Character Set

In MySQL, the gb18030 character set, introduced in MySQL 5.7.4, corresponds to the Chinese National Standard GB 18030-2005: Information technology — Chinese coded character set, which is the official character set of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Characteristics of the MySQL gb18030 Character Set
  • Supports all code points defined by the GB 18030-2005 standard. Unassigned code points in the ranges (GB+8431A439, GB+90308130) and (GB+E3329A36, GB+EF39EF39) are treated as '?' (0x3F). Conversion of unassigned code points return '?'.

  • Supports UPPER and LOWER conversion for all GB18030 code points. Case folding defined by Unicode is also supported (based on CaseFolding-6.3.0.txt).

  • Supports Conversion of data to and from other character sets.

  • Supports SQL statements such as SET NAMES.

  • Supports comparison between gb18030 strings, and between gb18030 strings and strings of other character sets. There is a conversion if strings have different character sets. Comparisons that include or ignore trailing spaces are also supported.

  • The private use area (U+E000, U+F8FF) in Unicode is mapped to gb18030.

  • There is no mapping between (U+D800, U+DFFF) and GB18030. Attempted conversion of code points in this range returns '?'.

  • If an incoming sequence is illegal, an error or warning is returned. If an illegal sequence is used in CONVERT(), an error is returned. Otherwise, a warning is returned.

  • For consistency with utf8 and utf8mb4, UPPER is not supported for ligatures.

  • Searches for ligatures also match uppercase ligatures when using the gb18030_unicode_520_ci collation.

  • If a character has more than one uppercase character, the chosen uppercase character is the one whose lowercase is the character itself.

  • The minimum multibyte length is 1 and the maximum is 4. The character set determines the length of a sequence using the first 1 or 2 bytes.

Supported Collations
  • gb18030_bin: A binary collation.

  • gb18030_chinese_ci: The default collation, which supports Pinyin. Sorting of non-Chinese characters is based on the order of the original sort key. The original sort key is GB(UPPER(ch)) if UPPER(ch) exists. Otherwise, the original sort key is GB(ch). Chinese characters are sorted according to the Pinyin collation defined in the Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR 24). Non-Chinese characters are sorted before Chinese characters with the exception of GB+FE39FE39, which is the code point maximum.

  • gb18030_unicode_520_ci: A Unicode collation. Use this collation if you need to ensure that ligatures are sorted correctly.

11.1.10.8 The Binary Character Set

The binary character set is the chararcter set of binary strings, which are sequences of bytes. The binary character set has one collation, also named binary. Comparison and sorting are based on numeric byte values. The effect is that lettercase and accent differences are significant in comparisons. That is, the binary collation is case sensitive and accent sensitive.

mysql> SET NAMES 'binary';
mysql> SELECT CHARSET('abc'), COLLATION('abc');
+----------------+------------------+
| CHARSET('abc') | COLLATION('abc') |
+----------------+------------------+
| binary         | binary           |
+----------------+------------------+
mysql> SELECT 'abc' = 'ABC', 'a' = 'ä';
+---------------+------------+
| 'abc' = 'ABC' | 'a' = 'ä'  |
+---------------+------------+
|             0 |          0 |
+---------------+------------+

For information about the differences between the binary collation of the binary character set and the _bin collations of nonbinary character sets, see Section 11.1.8.5, “The binary Collation Compared to _bin Collations”.

To convert a string expression to a binary string, any of these constructs are equivalent:

BINARY expr
CAST(expr AS BINARY)
CONVERT(expr USING BINARY)

If expr is a character string literal, the _binary introducer may be used to designate it as a binary string. For example:

_binary 'a'

The _binary introducer is permitted for hexadecimal literals and bit-value literals as well, but unnecessary; such literals are binary strings by default.

For more information about introducers, see Section 11.1.3.8, “Character Set Introducers”.

11.2 Setting the Error Message Language

By default, mysqld produces error messages in English, but they can also be displayed in any of several other languages: Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Norwegian-ny, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, or Swedish.

You can select which language the server uses for error messages using the instructions in this section.

The server searches for the error message file in two locations:

  • It tries to find the file in a directory constructed from two system variable values, lc_messages_dir and lc_messages, with the latter converted to a language name. Suppose that you start the server using this command:

    shell> mysqld --lc_messages_dir=/usr/share/mysql --lc_messages=fr_FR
    

    In this case, mysqld maps the locale fr_FR to the language french and looks for the error file in the /usr/share/mysql/french directory.

  • If the message file cannot be found in the directory constructed as just described, the server ignores the lc_messages value and uses only the lc_messages_dir value as the location in which to look.

The lc_messages_dir system variable has only a global value and is read only. lc_messages has global and session values and can be modified at runtime, so the error message language can be changed while the server is running, and individual clients each can have a different error message language by changing their session lc_messages value to a different locale name. For example, if the server is using the fr_FR locale for error messages, a client can execute this statement to receive error messages in English:

mysql> SET lc_messages = 'en_US';

By default, the language files are located in the share/mysql/LANGUAGE directory under the MySQL base directory.

For information about changing the character set for error messages (rather than the language), see Section 11.1.6, “Error Message Character Set”.

You can change the content of the error messages produced by the server using the instructions in the MySQL Internals manual, available at MySQL Internals: Error Messages. If you do change the content of error messages, remember to repeat your changes after each upgrade to a newer version of MySQL.

11.3 Adding a Character Set

This section discusses the procedure for adding a character set to MySQL. The proper procedure depends on whether the character set is simple or complex:

  • If the character set does not need special string collating routines for sorting and does not need multibyte character support, it is simple.

  • If the character set needs either of those features, it is complex.

For example, greek and swe7 are simple character sets, whereas big5 and czech are complex character sets.

To use the following instructions, you must have a MySQL source distribution. In the instructions, MYSET represents the name of the character set that you want to add.

  1. Add a <charset> element for MYSET to the sql/share/charsets/Index.xml file. Use the existing contents in the file as a guide to adding new contents. A partial listing for the latin1 <charset> element follows:

    <charset name="latin1">
      <family>Western</family>
      <description>cp1252 West European</description>
      ...
      <collation name="latin1_swedish_ci" id="8" order="Finnish, Swedish">
        <flag>primary</flag>
        <flag>compiled</flag>
      </collation>
      <collation name="latin1_danish_ci" id="15" order="Danish"/>
      ...
      <collation name="latin1_bin" id="47" order="Binary">
        <flag>binary</flag>
        <flag>compiled</flag>
      </collation>
      ...
    </charset>
    

    The <charset> element must list all the collations for the character set. These must include at least a binary collation and a default (primary) collation. The default collation is often named using a suffix of general_ci (general, case insensitive). It is possible for the binary collation to be the default collation, but usually they are different. The default collation should have a primary flag. The binary collation should have a binary flag.

    You must assign a unique ID number to each collation. The range of IDs from 1024 to 2047 is reserved for user-defined collations. To find the maximum of the currently used collation IDs, use this query:

    SELECT MAX(ID) FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLLATIONS;
    
  2. This step depends on whether you are adding a simple or complex character set. A simple character set requires only a configuration file, whereas a complex character set requires C source file that defines collation functions, multibyte functions, or both.

    For a simple character set, create a configuration file, MYSET.xml, that describes the character set properties. Create this file in the sql/share/charsets directory. You can use a copy of latin1.xml as the basis for this file. The syntax for the file is very simple:

    • Comments are written as ordinary XML comments (<!-- text -->).

    • Words within <map> array elements are separated by arbitrary amounts of whitespace.

    • Each word within <map> array elements must be a number in hexadecimal format.

    • The <map> array element for the <ctype> element has 257 words. The other <map> array elements after that have 256 words. See Section 11.3.1, “Character Definition Arrays”.

    • For each collation listed in the <charset> element for the character set in Index.xml, MYSET.xml must contain a <collation> element that defines the character ordering.

    For a complex character set, create a C source file that describes the character set properties and defines the support routines necessary to properly perform operations on the character set:

  3. Modify the configuration information. Use the existing configuration information as a guide to adding information for MYSYS. The example here assumes that the character set has default and binary collations, but more lines are needed if MYSET has additional collations.

    1. Edit mysys/charset-def.c, and register the collations for the new character set.

      Add these lines to the declaration section:

      #ifdef HAVE_CHARSET_MYSET
      extern CHARSET_INFO my_charset_MYSET_general_ci;
      extern CHARSET_INFO my_charset_MYSET_bin;
      #endif
      

      Add these lines to the registration section:

      #ifdef HAVE_CHARSET_MYSET
        add_compiled_collation(&my_charset_MYSET_general_ci);
        add_compiled_collation(&my_charset_MYSET_bin);
      #endif
      
    2. If the character set uses ctype-MYSET.c, edit strings/CMakeLists.txt and add ctype-MYSET.c to the definition of the STRINGS_SOURCES variable.

    3. Edit cmake/character_sets.cmake:

      1. Add MYSET to the value of with CHARSETS_AVAILABLE in alphabetic order.

      2. Add MYSET to the value of CHARSETS_COMPLEX in alphabetic order. This is needed even for simple character sets, or CMake will not recognize -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=MYSET.

  4. Reconfigure, recompile, and test.

11.3.1 Character Definition Arrays

Each simple character set has a configuration file located in the sql/share/charsets directory. For a character set named MYSYS, the file is named MYSET.xml. It uses <map> array elements to list character set properties. <map> elements appear within these elements:

  • <ctype> defines attributes for each character.

  • <lower> and <upper> list the lowercase and uppercase characters.

  • <unicode> maps 8-bit character values to Unicode values.

  • <collation> elements indicate character ordering for comparison and sorting, one element per collation. Binary collations need no <map> element because the character codes themselves provide the ordering.

For a complex character set as implemented in a ctype-MYSET.c file in the strings directory, there are corresponding arrays: ctype_MYSET[], to_lower_MYSET[], and so forth. Not every complex character set has all of the arrays. See also the existing ctype-*.c files for examples. See the CHARSET_INFO.txt file in the strings directory for additional information.

Most of the arrays are indexed by character value and have 256 elements. The <ctype> array is indexed by character value + 1 and has 257 elements. This is a legacy convention for handling EOF.

<ctype> array elements are bit values. Each element describes the attributes of a single character in the character set. Each attribute is associated with a bitmask, as defined in include/m_ctype.h:

#define _MY_U   01      /* Upper case */
#define _MY_L   02      /* Lower case */
#define _MY_NMR 04      /* Numeral (digit) */
#define _MY_SPC 010     /* Spacing character */
#define _MY_PNT 020     /* Punctuation */
#define _MY_CTR 040     /* Control character */
#define _MY_B   0100    /* Blank */
#define _MY_X   0200    /* heXadecimal digit */

The <ctype> value for a given character should be the union of the applicable bitmask values that describe the character. For example, 'A' is an uppercase character (_MY_U) as well as a hexadecimal digit (_MY_X), so its ctype value should be defined like this:

ctype['A'+1] = _MY_U | _MY_X = 01 | 0200 = 0201

The bitmask values in m_ctype.h are octal values, but the elements of the <ctype> array in MYSET.xml should be written as hexadecimal values.

The <lower> and <upper> arrays hold the lowercase and uppercase characters corresponding to each member of the character set. For example:

lower['A'] should contain 'a'
upper['a'] should contain 'A'

Each <collation> array indicates how characters should be ordered for comparison and sorting purposes. MySQL sorts characters based on the values of this information. In some cases, this is the same as the <upper> array, which means that sorting is case-insensitive. For more complicated sorting rules (for complex character sets), see the discussion of string collating in Section 11.3.2, “String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets”.

11.3.2 String Collating Support for Complex Character Sets

For a simple character set named MYSET, sorting rules are specified in the MYSET.xml configuration file using <map> array elements within <collation> elements. If the sorting rules for your language are too complex to be handled with simple arrays, you must define string collating functions in the ctype-MYSET.c source file in the strings directory.

The existing character sets provide the best documentation and examples to show how these functions are implemented. Look at the ctype-*.c files in the strings directory, such as the files for the big5, czech, gbk, sjis, and tis160 character sets. Take a look at the MY_COLLATION_HANDLER structures to see how they are used. See also the CHARSET_INFO.txt file in the strings directory for additional information.

11.3.3 Multi-Byte Character Support for Complex Character Sets

If you want to add support for a new character set named MYSET that includes multibyte characters, you must use multibyte character functions in the ctype-MYSET.c source file in the strings directory.

The existing character sets provide the best documentation and examples to show how these functions are implemented. Look at the ctype-*.c files in the strings directory, such as the files for the euc_kr, gb2312, gbk, sjis, and ujis character sets. Take a look at the MY_CHARSET_HANDLER structures to see how they are used. See also the CHARSET_INFO.txt file in the strings directory for additional information.

11.4 Adding a Collation to a Character Set

A collation is a set of rules that defines how to compare and sort character strings. Each collation in MySQL belongs to a single character set. Every character set has at least one collation, and most have two or more collations.

A collation orders characters based on weights. Each character in a character set maps to a weight. Characters with equal weights compare as equal, and characters with unequal weights compare according to the relative magnitude of their weights.

The WEIGHT_STRING() function can be used to see the weights for the characters in a string. The value that it returns to indicate weights is a binary string, so it is convenient to use HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(str)) to display the weights in printable form. The following example shows that weights do not differ for lettercase for the letters in 'AaBb' if it is a nonbinary case-insensitive string, but do differ if it is a binary string:

mysql> SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('AaBb' COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci));
+------------------------------------------------------+
| HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('AaBb' COLLATE latin1_swedish_ci)) |
+------------------------------------------------------+
| 41414242                                             |
+------------------------------------------------------+
mysql> SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(BINARY 'AaBb'));
+-----------------------------------+
| HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(BINARY 'AaBb')) |
+-----------------------------------+
| 41614262                          |
+-----------------------------------+

MySQL supports several collation implementations, as discussed in Section 11.4.1, “Collation Implementation Types”. Some of these can be added to MySQL without recompiling:

  • Simple collations for 8-bit character sets.

  • UCA-based collations for Unicode character sets.

  • Binary (xxx_bin) collations.

The following sections describe how to add collations of the first two types to existing character sets. All existing character sets already have a binary collation, so there is no need here to describe how to add one.

Summary of the procedure for adding a new collation:

  1. Choose a collation ID.

  2. Add configuration information that names the collation and describes the character-ordering rules.

  3. Restart the server.

  4. Verify that the collation is present.

The instructions here cover only collations that can be added without recompiling MySQL. To add a collation that does require recompiling (as implemented by means of functions in a C source file), use the instructions in Section 11.3, “Adding a Character Set”. However, instead of adding all the information required for a complete character set, just modify the appropriate files for an existing character set. That is, based on what is already present for the character set's current collations, add data structures, functions, and configuration information for the new collation.

Note

If you modify an existing collation, that may affect the ordering of rows for indexes on columns that use the collation. In this case, rebuild any such indexes to avoid problems such as incorrect query results. For further information, see Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”.

Additional Resources

11.4.1 Collation Implementation Types

MySQL implements several types of collations:

Simple collations for 8-bit character sets

This kind of collation is implemented using an array of 256 weights that defines a one-to-one mapping from character codes to weights. latin1_swedish_ci is an example. It is a case-insensitive collation, so the uppercase and lowercase versions of a character have the same weights and they compare as equal.

mysql> SET NAMES 'latin1' COLLATE 'latin1_swedish_ci';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> SELECT HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('a')), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('A'));
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('a')) | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('A')) |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
| 41                      | 41                      |
+-------------------------+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> SELECT 'a' = 'A';
+-----------+
| 'a' = 'A' |
+-----------+
|         1 |
+-----------+
1 row in set (0.12 sec)

For implementation instructions, see Section 11.4.3, “Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set”.

Complex collations for 8-bit character sets

This kind of collation is implemented using functions in a C source file that define how to order characters, as described in Section 11.3, “Adding a Character Set”.

Collations for non-Unicode multibyte character sets

For this type of collation, 8-bit (single-byte) and multibyte characters are handled differently. For 8-bit characters, character codes map to weights in case-insensitive fashion. (For example, the single-byte characters 'a' and 'A' both have a weight of 0x41.) For multibyte characters, there are two types of relationship between character codes and weights:

  • Weights equal character codes. sjis_japanese_ci is an example of this kind of collation. The multibyte character 'ぢ' has a character code of 0x82C0, and the weight is also 0x82C0.

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1
           (c1 VARCHAR(2) CHARACTER SET sjis COLLATE sjis_japanese_ci);
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
    
    mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES ('a'),('A'),(0x82C0);
    Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
    
    mysql> SELECT c1, HEX(c1), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(c1)) FROM t1;
    +------+---------+------------------------+
    | c1   | HEX(c1) | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(c1)) |
    +------+---------+------------------------+
    | a    | 61      | 41                     |
    | A    | 41      | 41                     |
    | ぢ    | 82C0    | 82C0                   |
    +------+---------+------------------------+
    3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    
  • Character codes map one-to-one to weights, but a code is not necessarily equal to the weight. gbk_chinese_ci is an example of this kind of collation. The multibyte character '膰' has a character code of 0x81B0 but a weight of 0xC286.

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1
           (c1 VARCHAR(2) CHARACTER SET gbk COLLATE gbk_chinese_ci);
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.33 sec)
    
    mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES ('a'),('A'),(0x81B0);
    Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
    
    mysql> SELECT c1, HEX(c1), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(c1)) FROM t1;
    +------+---------+------------------------+
    | c1   | HEX(c1) | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(c1)) |
    +------+---------+------------------------+
    | a    | 61      | 41                     |
    | A    | 41      | 41                     |
    | 膰    | 81B0    | C286                   |
    +------+---------+------------------------+
    3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
    

For implementation instructions, see Section 11.3, “Adding a Character Set”.

Collations for Unicode multibyte character sets

Some of these collations are based on the Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA), others are not.

Non-UCA collations have a one-to-one mapping from character code to weight. In MySQL, such collations are case insensitive and accent insensitive. utf8_general_ci is an example: 'a', 'A', 'À', and 'á' each have different character codes but all have a weight of 0x0041 and compare as equal.

mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8' COLLATE 'utf8_general_ci';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1
       (c1 CHAR(1) CHARACTER SET UTF8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO t1 VALUES ('a'),('A'),('À'),('á');
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 4  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT c1, HEX(c1), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(c1)) FROM t1;
+------+---------+------------------------+
| c1   | HEX(c1) | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING(c1)) |
+------+---------+------------------------+
| a    | 61      | 0041                   |
| A    | 41      | 0041                   |
| À    | C380    | 0041                   |
| á    | C3A1    | 0041                   |
+------+---------+------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

UCA-based collations in MySQL have these properties:

  • If a character has weights, each weight uses 2 bytes (16 bits).

  • A character may have zero weights (or an empty weight). In this case, the character is ignorable. Example: "U+0000 NULL" does not have a weight and is ignorable.

  • A character may have one weight. Example: 'a' has a weight of 0x0E33.

    mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8' COLLATE 'utf8_unicode_ci';
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
    
    mysql> SELECT HEX('a'), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('a'));
    +----------+-------------------------+
    | HEX('a') | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('a')) |
    +----------+-------------------------+
    | 61       | 0E33                    |
    +----------+-------------------------+
    1 row in set (0.02 sec)
    
  • A character may have many weights. This is an expansion. Example: The German letter 'ß' (SZ ligature, or SHARP S) has a weight of 0x0FEA0FEA.

    mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8' COLLATE 'utf8_unicode_ci';
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.11 sec)
    
    mysql> SELECT HEX('ß'), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('ß'));
    +-----------+--------------------------+
    | HEX('ß')  | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('ß'))  |
    +-----------+--------------------------+
    | C39F      | 0FEA0FEA                 |
    +-----------+--------------------------+
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    
  • Many characters may have one weight. This is a contraction. Example: 'ch' is a single letter in Czech and has a weight of 0x0EE2.

    mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8' COLLATE 'utf8_czech_ci';
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
    
    mysql> SELECT HEX('ch'), HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('ch'));
    +-----------+--------------------------+
    | HEX('ch') | HEX(WEIGHT_STRING('ch')) |
    +-----------+--------------------------+
    | 6368      | 0EE2                     |
    +-----------+--------------------------+
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    

A many-characters-to-many-weights mapping is also possible (this is contraction with expansion), but is not supported by MySQL.

For implementation instructions, for a non-UCA collation, see Section 11.3, “Adding a Character Set”. For a UCA collation, see Section 11.4.4, “Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set”.

Miscellaneous collations

There are also a few collations that do not fall into any of the previous categories.

11.4.2 Choosing a Collation ID

Each collation must have a unique ID. To add a collation, you must choose an ID value that is not currently used. MySQL supports two-byte collation IDs. The range of IDs from 1024 to 2047 is reserved for user-defined collations. The collation ID that you choose will appear in these contexts:

To determine the largest currently used ID, issue the following statement:

mysql> SELECT MAX(ID) FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLLATIONS;
+---------+
| MAX(ID) |
+---------+
|     210 |
+---------+

To display a list of all currently used IDs, issue this statement:

mysql> SELECT ID FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLLATIONS ORDER BY ID;
+-----+
| ID  |
+-----+
|   1 |
|   2 |
| ... |
|  52 |
|  53 |
|  57 |
|  58 |
| ... |
|  98 |
|  99 |
| 128 |
| 129 |
| ... |
| 210 |
+-----+
Warning

Before MySQL 5.5, which provides for a range of user-defined collation IDs, you must choose an ID in the range from 1 to 254. In this case, if you upgrade MySQL, you may find that the collation ID you choose has been assigned to a collation included in the new MySQL distribution. In this case, you will need to choose a new value for your own collation.

In addition, before upgrading, you should save the configuration files that you change. If you upgrade in place, the process will replace the your modified files.

11.4.3 Adding a Simple Collation to an 8-Bit Character Set

This section describes how to add a simple collation for an 8-bit character set by writing the <collation> elements associated with a <charset> character set description in the MySQL Index.xml file. The procedure described here does not require recompiling MySQL. The example adds a collation named latin1_test_ci to the latin1 character set.

  1. Choose a collation ID, as shown in Section 11.4.2, “Choosing a Collation ID”. The following steps use an ID of 1024.

  2. Modify the Index.xml and latin1.xml configuration files. These files are located in the directory named by the character_sets_dir system variable. You can check the variable value as follows, although the path name might be different on your system:

    mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character_sets_dir';
    +--------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name      | Value                                   |
    +--------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    | character_sets_dir | /user/local/mysql/share/mysql/charsets/ |
    +--------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    
  3. Choose a name for the collation and list it in the Index.xml file. Find the <charset> element for the character set to which the collation is being added, and add a <collation> element that indicates the collation name and ID, to associate the name with the ID. For example:

    <charset name="latin1">
      ...
      <collation name="latin1_test_ci" id="1024"/>
      ...
    </charset>
    
  4. In the latin1.xml configuration file, add a <collation> element that names the collation and that contains a <map> element that defines a character code-to-weight mapping table for character codes 0 to 255. Each value within the <map> element must be a number in hexadecimal format.

    <collation name="latin1_test_ci">
    <map>
     00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F
     10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F
     20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F
     30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F
     40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F
     50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F
     60 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F
     50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F
     80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 8A 8B 8C 8D 8E 8F
     90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 9A 9B 9C 9D 9E 9F
     A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AD AE AF
     B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF
     41 41 41 41 5B 5D 5B 43 45 45 45 45 49 49 49 49
     44 4E 4F 4F 4F 4F 5C D7 5C 55 55 55 59 59 DE DF
     41 41 41 41 5B 5D 5B 43 45 45 45 45 49 49 49 49
     44 4E 4F 4F 4F 4F 5C F7 5C 55 55 55 59 59 DE FF
    </map>
    </collation>
    
  5. Restart the server and use this statement to verify that the collation is present:

    mysql> SHOW COLLATION WHERE Collation = 'latin1_test_ci';
    +----------------+---------+------+---------+----------+---------+
    | Collation      | Charset | Id   | Default | Compiled | Sortlen |
    +----------------+---------+------+---------+----------+---------+
    | latin1_test_ci | latin1  | 1024 |         |          |       1 |
    +----------------+---------+------+---------+----------+---------+
    

11.4.4 Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set

This section describes how to add a UCA collation for a Unicode character set by writing the <collation> element within a <charset> character set description in the MySQL Index.xml file. The procedure described here does not require recompiling MySQL. It uses a subset of the Locale Data Markup Language (LDML) specification, which is available at http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr35/. With this method, you need not define the entire collation. Instead, you begin with an existing base collation and describe the new collation in terms of how it differs from the base collation. The following table lists the base collations of the Unicode character sets for which UCA collations can be defined. It is not possible to create user-defined UCA collations for utf16le; there is no utf16le_unicode_ci collation that would serve as the basis for such collations.

Table 11.4 MySQL Character Sets Available for User-Defined UCA Collations

Character SetBase Collation
utf8utf8_unicode_ci
ucs2ucs2_unicode_ci
utf16utf16_unicode_ci
utf32utf32_unicode_ci

The following sections show how to add a collation that is defined using LDML syntax, and provide a summary of LDML rules supported in MySQL.

11.4.4.1 Defining a UCA Collation Using LDML Syntax

To add a UCA collation for a Unicode character set without recompiling MySQL, use the following procedure. If you are unfamiliar with the LDML rules used to describe the collation's sort characteristics, see Section 11.4.4.2, “LDML Syntax Supported in MySQL”.

The example adds a collation named utf8_phone_ci to the utf8 character set. The collation is designed for a scenario involving a Web application for which users post their names and phone numbers. Phone numbers can be given in very different formats:

+7-12345-67
+7-12-345-67
+7 12 345 67
+7 (12) 345 67
+71234567

The problem raised by dealing with these kinds of values is that the varying permissible formats make searching for a specific phone number very difficult. The solution is to define a new collation that reorders punctuation characters, making them ignorable.

  1. Choose a collation ID, as shown in Section 11.4.2, “Choosing a Collation ID”. The following steps use an ID of 1029.

  2. To modify the Index.xml configuration file. This file is located in the directory named by the character_sets_dir system variable. You can check the variable value as follows, although the path name might be different on your system:

    mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character_sets_dir';
    +--------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name      | Value                                   |
    +--------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    | character_sets_dir | /user/local/mysql/share/mysql/charsets/ |
    +--------------------+-----------------------------------------+
    
  3. Choose a name for the collation and list it in the Index.xml file. In addition, you'll need to provide the collation ordering rules. Find the <charset> element for the character set to which the collation is being added, and add a <collation> element that indicates the collation name and ID, to associate the name with the ID. Within the <collation> element, provide a <rules> element containing the ordering rules:

    <charset name="utf8">
      ...
      <collation name="utf8_phone_ci" id="1029">
        <rules>
          <reset>\u0000</reset>
          <i>\u0020</i> <!-- space -->
          <i>\u0028</i> <!-- left parenthesis -->
          <i>\u0029</i> <!-- right parenthesis -->
          <i>\u002B</i> <!-- plus -->
          <i>\u002D</i> <!-- hyphen -->
        </rules>
      </collation>
      ...
    </charset>
    
  4. If you want a similar collation for other Unicode character sets, add other <collation> elements. For example, to define ucs2_phone_ci, add a <collation> element to the <charset name="ucs2"> element. Remember that each collation must have its own unique ID.

  5. Restart the server and use this statement to verify that the collation is present:

    mysql> SHOW COLLATION WHERE Collation = 'utf8_phone_ci';
    +---------------+---------+------+---------+----------+---------+
    | Collation     | Charset | Id   | Default | Compiled | Sortlen |
    +---------------+---------+------+---------+----------+---------+
    | utf8_phone_ci | utf8    | 1029 |         |          |       8 |
    +---------------+---------+------+---------+----------+---------+
    

Now test the collation to make sure that it has the desired properties.

Create a table containing some sample phone numbers using the new collation:

mysql> CREATE TABLE phonebook (
         name VARCHAR(64),
         phone VARCHAR(64) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_phone_ci
       );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO phonebook VALUES ('Svoj','+7 912 800 80 02');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO phonebook VALUES ('Hf','+7 (912) 800 80 04');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO phonebook VALUES ('Bar','+7-912-800-80-01');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO phonebook VALUES ('Ramil','(7912) 800 80 03');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO phonebook VALUES ('Sanja','+380 (912) 8008005');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

Run some queries to see whether the ignored punctuation characters are in fact ignored for comparison and sorting:

mysql> SELECT * FROM phonebook ORDER BY phone;
+-------+--------------------+
| name  | phone              |
+-------+--------------------+
| Sanja | +380 (912) 8008005 |
| Bar   | +7-912-800-80-01   |
| Svoj  | +7 912 800 80 02   |
| Ramil | (7912) 800 80 03   |
| Hf    | +7 (912) 800 80 04 |
+-------+--------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM phonebook WHERE phone='+7(912)800-80-01';
+------+------------------+
| name | phone            |
+------+------------------+
| Bar  | +7-912-800-80-01 |
+------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM phonebook WHERE phone='79128008001';
+------+------------------+
| name | phone            |
+------+------------------+
| Bar  | +7-912-800-80-01 |
+------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM phonebook WHERE phone='7 9 1 2 8 0 0 8 0 0 1';
+------+------------------+
| name | phone            |
+------+------------------+
| Bar  | +7-912-800-80-01 |
+------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

11.4.4.2 LDML Syntax Supported in MySQL

This section describes the LDML syntax that MySQL recognizes. This is a subset of the syntax described in the LDML specification available at http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr35/, which should be consulted for further information. MySQL recognizes a large enough subset of the syntax that, in many cases, it is possible to download a collation definition from the Unicode Common Locale Data Repository and paste the relevant part (that is, the part between the <rules> and </rules> tags) into the MySQL Index.xml file. The rules described here are all supported except that character sorting occurs only at the primary level. Rules that specify differences at secondary or higher sort levels are recognized (and thus can be included in collation definitions) but are treated as equality at the primary level.

The MySQL server generates diagnostics when it finds problems while parsing the Index.xml file. See Section 11.4.4.3, “Diagnostics During Index.xml Parsing”.

Character Representation

Characters named in LDML rules can be written literally or in \unnnn format, where nnnn is the hexadecimal Unicode code point value. For example, A and á can be written literally or as \u0041 and \u00E1. Within hexadecimal values, the digits A through F are not case sensitive; \u00E1 and \u00e1 are equivalent. For UCA 4.0.0 collations, hexadecimal notation can be used only for characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane, not for characters outside the BMP range of 0000 to FFFF. For UCA 5.2.0 collations, hexadecimal notation can be used for any character.

The Index.xml file itself should be written using UTF-8 encoding.

Syntax Rules

LDML has reset rules and shift rules to specify character ordering. Orderings are given as a set of rules that begin with a reset rule that establishes an anchor point, followed by shift rules that indicate how characters sort relative to the anchor point.

  • A <reset> rule does not specify any ordering in and of itself. Instead, it resets the ordering for subsequent shift rules to cause them to be taken in relation to a given character. Either of the following rules resets subsequent shift rules to be taken in relation to the letter 'A':

    <reset>A</reset>
    
    <reset>\u0041</reset>
    
  • The <p>, <s>, and <t> shift rules define primary, secondary, and tertiary differences of a character from another character:

    • Use primary differences to distinguish separate letters.

    • Use secondary differences to distinguish accent variations.

    • Use tertiary differences to distinguish lettercase variations.

    Either of these rules specifies a primary shift rule for the 'G' character:

    <p>G</p>
    
    <p>\u0047</p>
    
  • The <i> shift rule indicates that one character sorts identically to another. The following rules cause 'b' to sort the same as 'a':

    <reset>a</reset>
    <i>b</i>
    
  • Abbreviated shift syntax specifies multiple shift rules using a single pair of tags. The following table shows the correspondence between abbreviated syntax rules and the equivalent nonabbreviated rules.

    Table 11.5 Abbreviated Shift Syntax

    Abbreviated SyntaxNonabbreviated Syntax
    <pc>xyz</pc><p>x</p><p>y</p><p>z</p>
    <sc>xyz</sc><s>x</s><s>y</s><s>z</s>
    <tc>xyz</tc><t>x</t><t>y</t><t>z</t>
    <ic>xyz</ic><i>x</i><i>y</i><i>z</i>

  • An expansion is a reset rule that establishes an anchor point for a multiple-character sequence. MySQL supports expansions 2 to 6 characters long. The following rules put 'z' greater at the primary level than the sequence of three characters 'abc':

    <reset>abc</reset>
    <p>z</p>
    
  • A contraction is a shift rule that sorts a multiple-character sequence. MySQL supports contractions 2 to 6 characters long. The following rules put the sequence of three characters 'xyz' greater at the primary level than 'a':

    <reset>a</reset>
    <p>xyz</p>
    
  • Long expansions and long contractions can be used together. These rules put the sequence of three characters 'xyz' greater at the primary level than the sequence of three characters 'abc':

    <reset>abc</reset>
    <p>xyz</p>
    
  • Normal expansion syntax uses <x> plus <extend> elements to specify an expansion. The following rules put the character 'k' greater at the secondary level than the sequence 'ch'. That is, 'k' behaves as if it expands to a character after 'c' followed by 'h':

    <reset>c</reset>
    <x><s>k</s><extend>h</extend></x>
    

    This syntax permits long sequences. These rules sort the sequence 'ccs' greater at the tertiary level than the sequence 'cscs':

    <reset>cs</reset>
    <x><t>ccs</t><extend>cs</extend></x>
    

    The LDML specification describes normal expansion syntax as tricky. See that specification for details.

  • Previous context syntax uses <x> plus <context> elements to specify that the context before a character affects how it sorts. The following rules put '-' greater at the secondary level than 'a', but only when '-' occurs after 'b':

    <reset>a</reset>
    <x><context>b</context><s>-</s></x>
    
  • Previous context syntax can include the <extend> element. These rules put 'def' greater at the primary level than 'aghi', but only when 'def' comes after 'abc':

    <reset>a</reset>
    <x><context>abc</context><p>def</p><extend>ghi</extend></x>
    
  • Reset rules permit a before attribute. Normally, shift rules after a reset rule indicate characters that sort after the reset character. Shift rules after a reset rule that has the before attribute indicate characters that sort before the reset character. The following rules put the character 'b' immediately before 'a' at the primary level:

    <reset before="primary">a</reset>
    <p>b</p>
    

    Permissible before attribute values specify the sort level by name or the equivalent numeric value:

    <reset before="primary">
    <reset before="1">
    
    <reset before="secondary">
    <reset before="2">
    
    <reset before="tertiary">
    <reset before="3">
    
  • A reset rule can name a logical reset position rather than a literal character:

    <first_tertiary_ignorable/>
    <last_tertiary_ignorable/>
    <first_secondary_ignorable/>
    <last_secondary_ignorable/>
    <first_primary_ignorable/>
    <last_primary_ignorable/>
    <first_variable/>
    <last_variable/>
    <first_non_ignorable/>
    <last_non_ignorable/>
    <first_trailing/>
    <last_trailing/>
    

    These rules put 'z' greater at the primary level than nonignorable characters that have a Default Unicode Collation Element Table (DUCET) entry and that are not CJK:

    <reset><last_non_ignorable/></reset>
    <p>z</p>
    

    Logical positions have the code points shown in the following table.

    Table 11.6 Logical Reset Position Code Points

    Logical PositionUnicode 4.0.0 Code PointUnicode 5.2.0 Code Point
    <first_non_ignorable/>U+02D0U+02D0
    <last_non_ignorable/>U+A48CU+1342E
    <first_primary_ignorable/>U+0332U+0332
    <last_primary_ignorable/>U+20EAU+101FD
    <first_secondary_ignorable/>U+0000U+0000
    <last_secondary_ignorable/>U+FE73U+FE73
    <first_tertiary_ignorable/>U+0000U+0000
    <last_tertiary_ignorable/>U+FE73U+FE73
    <first_trailing/>U+0000U+0000
    <last_trailing/>U+0000U+0000
    <first_variable/>U+0009U+0009
    <last_variable/>U+2183U+1D371

  • The <collation> element permits a shift-after-method attribute that affects character weight calculation for shift rules. The attribute has these permitted values:

    • simple: Calculate character weights as for reset rules that do not have a before attribute. This is the default if the attribute is not given.

    • expand: Use expansions for shifts after reset rules.

    Suppose that '0' and '1' have weights of 0E29 and 0E2A and we want to put all basic Latin letters between '0' and '1':

    <reset>0</reset>
    <pc>abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz</pc>
    

    For simple shift mode, weights are calculated as follows:

    'a' has weight 0E29+1
    'b' has weight 0E29+2
    'c' has weight 0E29+3
    ...
    

    However, there are not enough vacant positions to put 26 characters between '0' and '1'. The result is that digits and letters are intermixed.

    To solve this, use shift-after-method="expand". Then weights are calculated like this:

    'a' has weight [0E29][233D+1]
    'b' has weight [0E29][233D+2]
    'c' has weight [0E29][233D+3]
    ...
    

    233D is the UCA 4.0.0 weight for character 0xA48C, which is the last nonignorable character (a sort of the greatest character in the collation, excluding CJK). UCA 5.2.0 is similar but uses 3ACA, for character 0x1342E.

MySQL-Specific LDML Extensions

An extension to LDML rules permits the <collation> element to include an optional version attribute in <collation> tags to indicate the UCA version on which the collation is based. If the version attribute is omitted, its default value is 4.0.0. For example, this specification indicates a collation that is based on UCA 5.2.0:

<collation id="nnn" name="utf8_xxx_ci" version="5.2.0">
...
</collation>

11.4.4.3 Diagnostics During Index.xml Parsing

The MySQL server generates diagnostics when it finds problems while parsing the Index.xml file:

  • Unknown tags are written to the error log. For example, the following message results if a collation definition contains a <aaa> tag:

    [Warning] Buffered warning: Unknown LDML tag:
    'charsets/charset/collation/rules/aaa'
    
  • If collation initialization is not possible, the server reports an Unknown collation error, and also generates warnings explaining the problems, such as in the previous example. In other cases, when a collation description is generally correct but contains some unknown tags, the collation is initialized and is available for use. The unknown parts are ignored, but a warning is generated in the error log.

  • Problems with collations generate warnings that clients can display with SHOW WARNINGS. Suppose that a reset rule contains an expansion longer than the maximum supported length of 6 characters:

    <reset>abcdefghi</reset>
    <i>x</i>
    

    An attempt to use the collation produces warnings:

    mysql> SELECT _utf8'test' COLLATE utf8_test_ci;
    ERROR 1273 (HY000): Unknown collation: 'utf8_test_ci'
    mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
    +---------+------+----------------------------------------+
    | Level   | Code | Message                                |
    +---------+------+----------------------------------------+
    | Error   | 1273 | Unknown collation: 'utf8_test_ci'      |
    | Warning | 1273 | Expansion is too long at 'abcdefghi=x' |
    +---------+------+----------------------------------------+
    

11.5 Character Set Configuration

You can change the default server character set and collation with the --character-set-server and --collation-server options when you start the server. The collation must be a legal collation for the default character set. (Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available for each character set.) See Section 6.1.4, “Server Command Options”.

If you try to use a character set that is not compiled into your binary, you might run into the following problems:

  • Your program uses an incorrect path to determine where the character sets are stored (which is typically the share/mysql/charsets or share/charsets directory under the MySQL installation directory). This can be fixed by using the --character-sets-dir option when you run the program in question. For example, to specify a directory to be used by MySQL client programs, list it in the [client] group of your option file. The examples given here show what the setting might look like for Unix or Windows, respectively:

    [client]
    character-sets-dir=/usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/charsets
    
    [client]
    character-sets-dir="C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 5.7/share/charsets"
    
  • The character set is a complex character set that cannot be loaded dynamically. In this case, you must recompile the program with support for the character set.

    For Unicode character sets, you can define collations without recompiling by using LDML notation. See Section 11.4.4, “Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set”.

  • The character set is a dynamic character set, but you do not have a configuration file for it. In this case, you should install the configuration file for the character set from a new MySQL distribution.

  • If your character set index file does not contain the name for the character set, your program displays an error message. The file is named Index.xml and the message is:

    Character set 'charset_name' is not a compiled character set and is not
    specified in the '/usr/share/mysql/charsets/Index.xml' file
    

    To solve this problem, you should either get a new index file or manually add the name of any missing character sets to the current file.

You can force client programs to use specific character set as follows:

[client]
default-character-set=charset_name

This is normally unnecessary. However, when character_set_system differs from character_set_server or character_set_client, and you input characters manually (as database object identifiers, column values, or both), these may be displayed incorrectly in output from the client or the output itself may be formatted incorrectly. In such cases, starting the mysql client with --default-character-set=system_character_set—that is, setting the client character set to match the system character set—should fix the problem.

For MyISAM tables, you can check the character set name and number for a table with myisamchk -dvv tbl_name.

11.6 MySQL Server Time Zone Support

MySQL Server maintains several time zone settings:

  • The system time zone. When the server starts, it attempts to determine the time zone of the host machine and uses it to set the system_time_zone system variable. The value does not change thereafter.

    You can set the system time zone for MySQL Server at startup with the --timezone=timezone_name option to mysqld_safe. You can also set it by setting the TZ environment variable before you start mysqld. The permissible values for --timezone or TZ are system dependent. Consult your operating system documentation to see what values are acceptable.

  • The server's current time zone. The global time_zone system variable indicates the time zone the server currently is operating in. The initial value for time_zone is 'SYSTEM', which indicates that the server time zone is the same as the system time zone.

    The initial global server time zone value can be specified explicitly at startup with the --default-time-zone=timezone option on the command line, or you can use the following line in an option file:

    default-time-zone='timezone'
    

    If you have the SUPER privilege, you can set the global server time zone value at runtime with this statement:

    mysql> SET GLOBAL time_zone = timezone;
    
  • Per-connection time zones. Each client that connects has its own time zone setting, given by the session time_zone variable. Initially, the session variable takes its value from the global time_zone variable, but the client can change its own time zone with this statement:

    mysql> SET time_zone = timezone;
    

The current session time zone setting affects display and storage of time values that are zone-sensitive. This includes the values displayed by functions such as NOW() or CURTIME(), and values stored in and retrieved from TIMESTAMP columns. Values for TIMESTAMP columns are converted from the current time zone to UTC for storage, and from UTC to the current time zone for retrieval.

The current time zone setting does not affect values displayed by functions such as UTC_TIMESTAMP() or values in DATE, TIME, or DATETIME columns. Nor are values in those data types stored in UTC; the time zone applies for them only when converting from TIMESTAMP values. If you want locale-specific arithmetic for DATE, TIME, or DATETIME values, convert them to UTC, perform the arithmetic, and then convert back.

The current values of the global and client-specific time zones can be retrieved like this:

mysql> SELECT @@global.time_zone, @@session.time_zone;

timezone values can be given in several formats, none of which are case sensitive:

  • The value 'SYSTEM' indicates that the time zone should be the same as the system time zone.

  • The value can be given as a string indicating an offset from UTC, such as '+10:00' or '-6:00'.

  • The value can be given as a named time zone, such as 'Europe/Helsinki', 'US/Eastern', or 'MET'. Named time zones can be used only if the time zone information tables in the mysql database have been created and populated.

Populating the Time Zone Tables

Several tables in the mysql system database exist to maintain time zone information (see Section 6.3, “The mysql System Database”). The MySQL installation procedure creates the time zone tables, but does not load them. You must do so manually using the following instructions.

Note

Loading the time zone information is not necessarily a one-time operation because the information changes occasionally. When such changes occur, applications that use the old rules become out of date and you may find it necessary to reload the time zone tables to keep the information used by your MySQL server current. See the notes at the end of this section.

If your system has its own zoneinfo database (the set of files describing time zones), you should use the mysql_tzinfo_to_sql program for filling the time zone tables. Examples of such systems are Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, and OS X. One likely location for these files is the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory. If your system does not have a zoneinfo database, you can use the downloadable package described later in this section.

The mysql_tzinfo_to_sql program is used to load the time zone tables. On the command line, pass the zoneinfo directory path name to mysql_tzinfo_to_sql and send the output into the mysql program. For example:

shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql /usr/share/zoneinfo | mysql -u root mysql

mysql_tzinfo_to_sql reads your system's time zone files and generates SQL statements from them. mysql processes those statements to load the time zone tables.

mysql_tzinfo_to_sql also can be used to load a single time zone file or to generate leap second information:

  • To load a single time zone file tz_file that corresponds to a time zone name tz_name, invoke mysql_tzinfo_to_sql like this:

    shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql tz_file tz_name | mysql -u root mysql
    

    With this approach, you must execute a separate command to load the time zone file for each named zone that the server needs to know about.

  • If your time zone needs to account for leap seconds, initialize the leap second information like this, where tz_file is the name of your time zone file:

    shell> mysql_tzinfo_to_sql --leap tz_file | mysql -u root mysql
    
  • After running mysql_tzinfo_to_sql, it is best to restart the server so that it does not continue to use any previously cached time zone data.

If your system is one that has no zoneinfo database (for example, Windows), you can use a package that is available for download at the MySQL Developer Zone:

http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/timezones.html

Download a time zone package that contains SQL statements and unpack it, then load the package file contents into the time zone tables:

shell> mysql -u root mysql < file_name

Then restart the server.

Warning

Do not use a downloadable package that contains MyISAM tables. MySQL 5.7.5 and up uses InnoDB for the time zone tables. Trying to replace them with MyISAM tables will cause problems.

Warning

Do not use a downloadable package if your system has a zoneinfo database. Use the mysql_tzinfo_to_sql utility instead. Otherwise, you may cause a difference in datetime handling between MySQL and other applications on your system.

For information about time zone settings in replication setup, please see Section 18.4.1, “Replication Features and Issues”.

11.6.1 Staying Current with Time Zone Changes

When time zone rules change, applications that use the old rules become out of date. To stay current, it is necessary to make sure that your system uses current time zone information is used. For MySQL, there are two factors to consider in staying current:

  • The operating system time affects the value that the MySQL server uses for times if its time zone is set to SYSTEM. Make sure that your operating system is using the latest time zone information. For most operating systems, the latest update or service pack prepares your system for the time changes. Check the Web site for your operating system vendor for an update that addresses the time changes.

  • If you replace the system's /etc/localtime timezone file with a version that uses rules differing from those in effect at mysqld startup, you should restart mysqld so that it uses the updated rules. Otherwise, mysqld might not notice when the system changes its time.

  • If you use named time zones with MySQL, make sure that the time zone tables in the mysql database are up to date. If your system has its own zoneinfo database, you should reload the MySQL time zone tables whenever the zoneinfo database is updated. For systems that do not have their own zoneinfo database, check the MySQL Developer Zone for updates. When a new update is available, download it and use it to replace the content of your current time zone tables. For instructions for both methods, see Populating the Time Zone Tables. mysqld caches time zone information that it looks up, so after updating the time zone tables, you should restart mysqld to make sure that it does not continue to serve outdated time zone data.

If you are uncertain whether named time zones are available, for use either as the server's time zone setting or by clients that set their own time zone, check whether your time zone tables are empty. The following query determines whether the table that contains time zone names has any rows:

mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM mysql.time_zone_name;
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|        0 |
+----------+

A count of zero indicates that the table is empty. In this case, no one can be using named time zones, and you don't need to update the tables. A count greater than zero indicates that the table is not empty and that its contents are available to be used for named time zone support. In this case, you should be sure to reload your time zone tables so that anyone who uses named time zones will get correct query results.

To check whether your MySQL installation is updated properly for a change in Daylight Saving Time rules, use a test like the one following. The example uses values that are appropriate for the 2007 DST 1-hour change that occurs in the United States on March 11 at 2 a.m.

The test uses these two queries:

SELECT CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 2:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central');
SELECT CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 3:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central');

The two time values indicate the times at which the DST change occurs, and the use of named time zones requires that the time zone tables be used. The desired result is that both queries return the same result (the input time, converted to the equivalent value in the 'US/Central' time zone).

Before updating the time zone tables, you would see an incorrect result like this:

mysql> SELECT CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 2:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 2:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2007-03-11 01:00:00                                        |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

mysql> SELECT CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 3:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 3:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2007-03-11 02:00:00                                        |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

After updating the tables, you should see the correct result:

mysql> SELECT CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 2:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 2:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2007-03-11 01:00:00                                        |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

mysql> SELECT CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 3:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central');
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| CONVERT_TZ('2007-03-11 3:00:00','US/Eastern','US/Central') |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2007-03-11 01:00:00                                        |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

11.6.2 Time Zone Leap Second Support

Leap second values are returned with a time part that ends with :59:59. This means that a function such as NOW() can return the same value for two or three consecutive seconds during the leap second. It remains true that literal temporal values having a time part that ends with :59:60 or :59:61 are considered invalid.

If it is necessary to search for TIMESTAMP values one second before the leap second, anomalous results may be obtained if you use a comparison with 'YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss' values. The following example demonstrates this. It changes the local time zone to UTC so there is no difference between internal values (which are in UTC) and displayed values (which have time zone correction applied).

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
         a INT,
         ts TIMESTAMP DEFAULT NOW(),
         PRIMARY KEY (ts)
       );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> -- change to UTC
mysql> SET time_zone = '+00:00';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> -- Simulate NOW() = '2008-12-31 23:59:59'
mysql> SET timestamp = 1230767999;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO t1 (a) VALUES (1);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> -- Simulate NOW() = '2008-12-31 23:59:60'
mysql> SET timestamp = 1230768000;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO t1 (a) VALUES (2);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> -- values differ internally but display the same
mysql> SELECT a, ts, UNIX_TIMESTAMP(ts) FROM t1;
+------+---------------------+--------------------+
| a    | ts                  | UNIX_TIMESTAMP(ts) |
+------+---------------------+--------------------+
|    1 | 2008-12-31 23:59:59 |         1230767999 |
|    2 | 2008-12-31 23:59:59 |         1230768000 |
+------+---------------------+--------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> -- only the non-leap value matches
mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE ts = '2008-12-31 23:59:59';
+------+---------------------+
| a    | ts                  |
+------+---------------------+
|    1 | 2008-12-31 23:59:59 |
+------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> -- the leap value with seconds=60 is invalid
mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE ts = '2008-12-31 23:59:60';
Empty set, 2 warnings (0.00 sec)

To work around this, you can use a comparison based on the UTC value actually stored in column, which has the leap second correction applied:

mysql> -- selecting using UNIX_TIMESTAMP value return leap value
mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE UNIX_TIMESTAMP(ts) = 1230768000;
+------+---------------------+
| a    | ts                  |
+------+---------------------+
|    2 | 2008-12-31 23:59:59 |
+------+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

11.7 MySQL Server Locale Support

The locale indicated by the lc_time_names system variable controls the language used to display day and month names and abbreviations. This variable affects the output from the DATE_FORMAT(), DAYNAME(), and MONTHNAME() functions.

lc_time_names does not affect the STR_TO_DATE() or GET_FORMAT() function.

The lc_time_names value does not affect the result from FORMAT(), but this function takes an optional third parameter that enables a locale to be specified to be used for the result number's decimal point, thousands separator, and grouping between separators. Permissible locale values are the same as the legal values for the lc_time_names system variable.

Locale names have language and region subtags listed by IANA (http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry) such as 'ja_JP' or 'pt_BR'. The default value is 'en_US' regardless of your system's locale setting, but you can set the value at server startup or set the GLOBAL value if you have the SUPER privilege. Any client can examine the value of lc_time_names or set its SESSION value to affect the locale for its own connection.

mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)

mysql> SELECT @@lc_time_names;
+-----------------+
| @@lc_time_names |
+-----------------+
| en_US           |
+-----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT DAYNAME('2010-01-01'), MONTHNAME('2010-01-01');
+-----------------------+-------------------------+
| DAYNAME('2010-01-01') | MONTHNAME('2010-01-01') |
+-----------------------+-------------------------+
| Friday                | January                 |
+-----------------------+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT DATE_FORMAT('2010-01-01','%W %a %M %b');
+-----------------------------------------+
| DATE_FORMAT('2010-01-01','%W %a %M %b') |
+-----------------------------------------+
| Friday Fri January Jan                  |
+-----------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SET lc_time_names = 'es_MX';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT @@lc_time_names;
+-----------------+
| @@lc_time_names |
+-----------------+
| es_MX           |
+-----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT DAYNAME('2010-01-01'), MONTHNAME('2010-01-01');
+-----------------------+-------------------------+
| DAYNAME('2010-01-01') | MONTHNAME('2010-01-01') |
+-----------------------+-------------------------+
| viernes               | enero                   |
+-----------------------+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT DATE_FORMAT('2010-01-01','%W %a %M %b');
+-----------------------------------------+
| DATE_FORMAT('2010-01-01','%W %a %M %b') |
+-----------------------------------------+
| viernes vie enero ene                   |
+-----------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The day or month name for each of the affected functions is converted from utf8 to the character set indicated by the character_set_connection system variable.

lc_time_names may be set to any of the following locale values. The set of locales supported by MySQL may differ from those supported by your operating system.

ar_AE: Arabic - United Arab Emiratesar_BH: Arabic - Bahrain
ar_DZ: Arabic - Algeriaar_EG: Arabic - Egypt
ar_IN: Arabic - Indiaar_IQ: Arabic - Iraq
ar_JO: Arabic - Jordanar_KW: Arabic - Kuwait
ar_LB: Arabic - Lebanonar_LY: Arabic - Libya
ar_MA: Arabic - Moroccoar_OM: Arabic - Oman
ar_QA: Arabic - Qatarar_SA: Arabic - Saudi Arabia
ar_SD: Arabic - Sudanar_SY: Arabic - Syria
ar_TN: Arabic - Tunisiaar_YE: Arabic - Yemen
be_BY: Belarusian - Belarusbg_BG: Bulgarian - Bulgaria
ca_ES: Catalan - Spaincs_CZ: Czech - Czech Republic
da_DK: Danish - Denmarkde_AT: German - Austria
de_BE: German - Belgiumde_CH: German - Switzerland
de_DE: German - Germanyde_LU: German - Luxembourg
el_GR: Greek - Greeceen_AU: English - Australia
en_CA: English - Canadaen_GB: English - United Kingdom
en_IN: English - Indiaen_NZ: English - New Zealand
en_PH: English - Philippinesen_US: English - United States
en_ZA: English - South Africaen_ZW: English - Zimbabwe
es_AR: Spanish - Argentinaes_BO: Spanish - Bolivia
es_CL: Spanish - Chilees_CO: Spanish - Columbia
es_CR: Spanish - Costa Ricaes_DO: Spanish - Dominican Republic
es_EC: Spanish - Ecuadores_ES: Spanish - Spain
es_GT: Spanish - Guatemalaes_HN: Spanish - Honduras
es_MX: Spanish - Mexicoes_NI: Spanish - Nicaragua
es_PA: Spanish - Panamaes_PE: Spanish - Peru
es_PR: Spanish - Puerto Ricoes_PY: Spanish - Paraguay
es_SV: Spanish - El Salvadores_US: Spanish - United States
es_UY: Spanish - Uruguayes_VE: Spanish - Venezuela
et_EE: Estonian - Estoniaeu_ES: Basque - Basque
fi_FI: Finnish - Finlandfo_FO: Faroese - Faroe Islands
fr_BE: French - Belgiumfr_CA: French - Canada
fr_CH: French - Switzerlandfr_FR: French - France
fr_LU: French - Luxembourggl_ES: Galician - Spain
gu_IN: Gujarati - Indiahe_IL: Hebrew - Israel
hi_IN: Hindi - Indiahr_HR: Croatian - Croatia
hu_HU: Hungarian - Hungaryid_ID: Indonesian - Indonesia
is_IS: Icelandic - Icelandit_CH: Italian - Switzerland
it_IT: Italian - Italyja_JP: Japanese - Japan
ko_KR: Korean - Republic of Korealt_LT: Lithuanian - Lithuania
lv_LV: Latvian - Latviamk_MK: Macedonian - FYROM
mn_MN: Mongolia - Mongolianms_MY: Malay - Malaysia
nb_NO: Norwegian(Bokmål) - Norwaynl_BE: Dutch - Belgium
nl_NL: Dutch - The Netherlandsno_NO: Norwegian - Norway
pl_PL: Polish - Polandpt_BR: Portugese - Brazil
pt_PT: Portugese - Portugalrm_CH: Romansh - Switzerland
ro_RO: Romanian - Romaniaru_RU: Russian - Russia
ru_UA: Russian - Ukrainesk_SK: Slovak - Slovakia
sl_SI: Slovenian - Sloveniasq_AL: Albanian - Albania
sr_RS: Serbian - Yugoslaviasv_FI: Swedish - Finland
sv_SE: Swedish - Swedenta_IN: Tamil - India
te_IN: Telugu - Indiath_TH: Thai - Thailand
tr_TR: Turkish - Turkeyuk_UA: Ukrainian - Ukraine
ur_PK: Urdu - Pakistanvi_VN: Vietnamese - Viet Nam
zh_CN: Chinese - Chinazh_HK: Chinese - Hong Kong
zh_TW: Chinese - Taiwan Province of China