Chapter 2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL

Table of Contents

2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer
2.3.4 MySQL Notifier
2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.3.8 Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.4 Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.2 Replacing a Third-Party Distribution of MySQL Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository
2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository
2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle
2.5.6 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle
2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories
2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with docker
2.5.9 Installing MySQL on Linux with juju
2.5.10 Managing MySQL Server with systemd
2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris
2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.7.2 Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS
2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.9 Installing MySQL from Source
2.9.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.9.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.9.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.9.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.9.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.10.2 Starting the Server
2.10.3 Testing the Server
2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.11 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.11.1 Upgrading MySQL
2.11.2 Downgrading MySQL
2.11.3 Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt
2.11.4 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.5 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12 Perl Installation Notes
2.12.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.12.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.12.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL. A summary of the procedure follows and later sections provide the details. If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than install MySQL for the first time, see Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading.

If you are interested in migrating to MySQL from another database system, see Section A.8, “MySQL 5.7 FAQ: Migration”, which contains answers to some common questions concerning migration issues.

Installation of MySQL generally follows the steps outlined here:

  1. Determine whether MySQL runs and is supported on your platform.

    Please note that not all platforms are equally suitable for running MySQL, and that not all platforms on which MySQL is known to run are officially supported by Oracle Corporation. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL Web site.

  2. Choose which distribution to install.

    Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. Oracle also provides access to the MySQL source code for those who want to see recent developments and test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see Section 2.1.1, “Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install”.

  3. Download the distribution that you want to install.

    For instructions, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. To verify the integrity of the distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG”.

  4. Install the distribution.

    To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

    To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  5. Perform any necessary postinstallation setup.

    After installing MySQL, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” for information about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. Also refer to the information provided in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”. This section describes how to secure the initial MySQL root user account, which has no password until you assign one. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.

  6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See Section 2.12, “Perl Installation Notes”.

Instructions for installing MySQL on different platforms and environments is available on a platform by platform basis:

2.1 General Installation Guidance

The immediately following sections contain the information necessary to choose, download, and verify your distribution. The instructions in later sections of the chapter describe how to install the distribution that you choose. For binary distributions, see the instructions at Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries” or the corresponding section for your platform if available. To build MySQL from source, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install

MySQL is available on a number of operating systems and platforms. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL Web site.

MySQL is available on many operating systems and platforms. For information about platforms supported by GA releases of MySQL, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html. For development versions of MySQL, builds are available for a number of platforms at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.7.html. To learn more about MySQL Support, see http://www.mysql.com/support/.

When preparing to install MySQL, decide which version and distribution format (binary or source) to use.

First, decide whether to install a development release or a General Availability (GA) release. Development releases have the newest features, but are not recommended for production use. GA releases, also called production or stable releases, are meant for production use. We recommend using the most recent GA release.

The naming scheme in MySQL 5.7 uses release names that consist of three numbers and an optional suffix; for example, mysql-5.7.1-m1. The numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:

  • The first number (5) is the major version number.

  • The second number (7) is the minor version number. Taken together, the major and minor numbers constitute the release series number. The series number describes the stable feature set.

  • The third number (1) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new bugfix release. In most cases, the most recent version within a series is the best choice.

Release names can also include a suffix to indicate the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

  • mN (for example, m1, m2, m3, ...) indicates a milestone number. MySQL development uses a milestone model, in which each milestone introduces a small subset of thoroughly tested features. From one milestone to the next, feature interfaces may change or features may even be removed, based on feedback provided by community members who try these earily releases. Features within milestone releases may be considered to be of pre-production quality.

  • rc indicates a Release Candidate (RC). Release candidates are believed to be stable, having passed all of MySQL's internal testing. New features may still be introduced in RC releases, but the focus shifts to fixing bugs to stabilize features introduced earlier within the series.

  • Absence of a suffix indicates a General Availability (GA) or Production release. GA releases are stable, having successfully passed through the earlier release stages, and are believed to be reliable, free of serious bugs, and suitable for use in production systems.

Development within a series begins with milestone releases, followed by RC releases, and finally reaches GA status releases.

After choosing which MySQL version to install, decide which distribution format to install for your operating system. For most use cases, a binary distribution is the right choice. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM packages for Linux or DMG packages for OS X. Distributions are also available in more generic formats such as Zip archives or compressed tar files. On Windows, you can use the MySQL Installer to install a binary distribution.

Under some circumstances, it may be preferable to install MySQL from a source distribution:

  • You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions are ready to run at any installation location, but you might require even more flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.

  • You want to configure mysqld with features that might not be included in the standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options used to ensure feature availability:

    For additional information, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

  • You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard binary distributions. For example, distributions normally are compiled with support for all character sets. If you want a smaller MySQL server, you can recompile it with support for only the character sets you need.

  • You want to read or modify the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this purpose, obtain a source distribution.

  • Source distributions contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.

2.1.2 How to Get MySQL

Check our downloads page at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. You can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

For RPM-based Linux platforms that use Yum as their package management system, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL Yum Repository. See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

For a number of Debian-based Linux platforms, such as Ubuntu, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL APT Repository. See Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository” for details.

For SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) platforms, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL SLES Repository. See Section 2.5.4, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository” for details.

To obtain the latest development source, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After downloading the MySQL package that suits your needs and before attempting to install it, make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. There are three means of integrity checking:

  • MD5 checksums

  • Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard

  • For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site.

2.1.3.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify against the package that you downloaded. The correct MD5 checksum is listed on the downloads page for each MySQL product, and you will compare it against the MD5 checksum of the file (product) that you download.

Each operating system and setup offers its own version of tools for checking the MD5 checksum. Typically the command is named md5sum, or it may be named md5, and some operating systems do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can also download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/. winMd5Sum is a graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum. Our Microsoft Windows examples will assume the name md5.exe.

Linux and Microsoft Windows examples:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-5.7.18-linux-i686.tar.gz
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-standard-5.7.18-linux-i686.tar.gz
shell> md5.exe mysql-installer-community-5.7.18.msi
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-installer-community-5.7.18.msi

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

Note

Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example, the .zip, .tar.gz, or .msi file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive. In other words, verify the file before extracting its contents.

2.1.3.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about GnuPG, see http://www.openpgp.org/.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can download from http://pgp.mit.edu/. The key that you want to obtain is named mysql-build@oss.oracle.com. Alternatively, you can copy and paste the key directly from the following text:

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.4.5 (GNU/Linux)

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sl9/S1xZ5S8ylG/xeRsAAwUH/i8KqmvAhq0X7DgCcYputwh37cuZlHOa1Ep07JRm
BCDgkdQXkGrsj2Wzw7Aw/TGdWWkmn2pxb8BRui5cfcZFO7c6vryi6FpJuLucX975
+eVY50ndWkPXkJ1HF4i+HJwRqE2zliN/RHMs4LJcwXQvvjD43EE3AO6eiVFbD+qA
AdxUFoOeLblKNBHPG7DPG9xL+Ni5rkE+TXShxsB7F0z7ZdJJZOG0JODmox7IstQT
GoaU9u41oyZTIiXPiFidJoIZCh7fdurP8pn3X+R5HUNXMr7M+ba8lSNxce/F3kmH
0L7rsKqdh9d/aVxhJINJ+inVDnrXWVoXu9GBjT8Nco1iU9SIVAQYEQIADAUCTnc9
7QUJE/sBuAASB2VHUEcAAQEJEIxxjTtQcuH1FJsAmwWK9vmwRJ/y9gTnJ8PWf0BV
roUTAKClYAhZuX2nUNwH4vlEJQHDqYa5yQ==
=HfUN
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring, use gpg --import. For example, if you have saved the key in a file named mysql_pubkey.asc, the import command looks like this:

shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
gpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering
<mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found

You can also download the key from the public keyserver using the public key id, 5072E1F5:

shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5
gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
1 new user ID
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
53 new signatures
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:           new user IDs: 1
gpg:         new signatures: 53

If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the key directly:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

If you experience problems or require RPM specific information, see Section 2.1.3.4, “Signature Checking Using RPM”.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an .asc extension, as shown by the examples in the following table.

Table 2.1 MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files

File TypeFile Name
Distribution filemysql-standard-5.7.18-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature filemysql-standard-5.7.18-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good signature" similar to:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.7.18-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"

The Good signature message indicates that the file signature is valid, when compared to the signature listed on our site. But you might also see warnings, like so:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.7.18-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration. Here are explanations for these warnings:

  • gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found: This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file signatures.

  • WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.: This refers to your level of trust in your belief that you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision. Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person, but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you. Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.

See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.

2.1.3.3 Signature Checking Using Gpg4win for Windows

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section describes how to verify MySQL downloads using GPG. That guide also applies to Microsoft Windows, but another option is to use a GUI tool like Gpg4win. You may use a different tool but our examples are based on Gpg4win, and utilize its bundled Kleopatra GUI.

Download and install Gpg4win, and then load Kleopatra. The dialog should look similar to:

Figure 2.1 Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

Next, add the MySQL Release Engineering certificate. Do this by clicking File, Lookup Certificates on Server. Type "Mysql Release Engineering" into the search box and press Search.

Figure 2.2 Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

Select the "MySQL Release Engineering" certificate. The Fingerprint and Key-ID must be "5072E1F5", or choose Details... to confirm the certificate is valid. Now, import it by clicking Import. An import dialog will be displayed, choose Okay, and this certificate will now be listed under the Imported Certificates tab.

Next, configure the trust level for our certificate. Select our certificate, then from the main menu select Certificates, Change Owner Trust.... We suggest choosing I believe checks are very accurate for our certificate, as otherwise you might not be able to verify our signature. Select I believe checks are very accurate and then press OK.

Figure 2.3 Changing the Trust level

Changing the Trust level

Next, verify the downloaded MySQL package file. This requires files for both the packaged file, and the signature. The signature file must have the same name as the packaged file but with an appended .asc extension, as shown by the example in the following table. The signature is linked to on the downloads page for each MySQL product. You must create the .asc file with this signature.

Table 2.2 MySQL Package and Signature Files for MySQL Installer for Microsoft Windows

File TypeFile Name
Distribution filemysql-installer-community-5.7.18.msi
Signature filemysql-installer-community-5.7.18.msi.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file. Either drag and drop the signature (.asc) file into Kleopatra, or load the dialog from File, Decrypt/Verify Files..., and then choose either the .msi or .asc file.

Figure 2.4 The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

Click Decrypt/Verify to check the file. The two most common results will look like the following, and although the yellow warning looks problematic, the following means that the file check passed with success. You may now run this installer.

Figure 2.5 The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

Seeing a red "The signature is bad" error means the file is invalid. Do not execute the MSI file if you see this error.

Figure 2.6 The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section explains why you probably don't see a green Good signature result.

2.1.3.4 Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-5.7.18-0.linux_glibc2.5.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-5.7.18-0.linux_glibc2.5.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
Note

If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, RPM maintains a separate keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key, then use rpm --import to import the key. For example:

shell> gpg --export -a 5072e1f5 > 5072e1f5.asc
shell> rpm --import 5072e1f5.asc

Alternatively, rpm also supports loading the key directly from a URL, and you can use this manual page:

shell> rpm --import http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/checking-gpg-signature.html

If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG”.

2.1.4 Installation Layouts

The installation layout differs for different installation types (for example, native packages, binary tarballs, and source tarballs), which can lead to confusion when managing different systems or using different installation sources. The individual layouts are given in the corresponding installation type or platform chapter, as described following. Note that the layout of installations from vendors other than Oracle may differ from these layouts.

2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics

In some cases, the compiler used to build MySQL affects the features available for use. The notes in this section apply for binary distributions provided by Oracle Corporation or that you compile yourself from source.

icc (Intel C++ Compiler) Builds

A server built with icc has these characteristics:

  • SSL support is not included.

2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries

Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include generic binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, and binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.

This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution. For other platform-specific package formats, see the other platform-specific sections. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows”.

To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the form mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz, where VERSION is a number (for example, 5.7.18), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

Warning

If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management system, such as yum or apt-get, you may experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL installation has been removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check for configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql directory and delete them.

For information about replacing third-party packages with official MySQL packages, see the related Apt guide or Yum guide.

Warning

MySQL has a dependency on the libaio library. Data directory initialization and subsequent server startup steps will fail if this library is not installed locally. If necessary, install it using the appropriate package manager. For example, on Yum-based systems:

shell> yum search libaio  # search for info
shell> yum install libaio # install library

Or, on APT-based systems:

shell> apt-cache search libaio # search for info
shell> apt-get install libaio1 # install library

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

On Unix, to install a compressed tar file binary distribution, unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically /usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.3 MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package

DirectoryContents of Directory
bin, scriptsmysqld server, client and utility programs
dataLog files, databases
docsMySQL manual in Info format
manUnix manual pages
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation

Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug. To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. See Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the command sequence looks like this:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> mkdir mysql-files
shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql# MySQL 5.7.0 to 5.7.4
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql    # MySQL 5.7.5
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql # MySQL 5.7.6 and up
shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup              # MySQL 5.7.6 and up
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data mysql-files
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
Note

This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (OpenSolaris) command.

Note

Before MySQL 5.7.4, the procedure does not assign passwords to MySQL accounts. To do so, use the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

The mysql-files directory provides a convenient location to use as the value of the secure_file_priv system variable that limits import/export operations to a specific directory. See Section 6.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

Before MySQL 5.7.5, mysql_install_db creates a default option file named my.cnf in the base installation directory. This file is created from a template included in the distribution package named my-default.cnf. For more information, see Section 6.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

Note

As of MySQL 5.7.18, my-default.cnf is no longer included in or installed by distribution packages.

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.

Create a mysql User and Group

If your system does not already have a user and group to use for running mysqld, you may need to create one. The following commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix, or they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup.

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
Note

Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r and -s /bin/false options to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit these options if your useradd does not support them.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here unpacks the distribution under /usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in /usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the installation as root.

shell> cd /usr/local

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.

Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz

The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS.

To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution, your system must have GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:

shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -

Next, create a symbolic link to the installation directory created by tar:

shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

The ln command makes a symbolic link to the installation directory. This enables you to refer more easily to it as /usr/local/mysql. To avoid having to type the path name of client programs always when you are working with MySQL, you can add the /usr/local/mysql/bin directory to your PATH variable:

shell> export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting distribution ownership and access permissions, initializing the data directory, starting the MySQL server, and setting up the configuration file. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows

MySQL is available for Microsoft Windows, for both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. For supported Windows platform information, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

Important

If your operating system is Windows 2008 R2 or Windows 7 and you do not have Service Pack 1 (SP1) installed, MySQL 5.7 will regularly restart and in the MySQL server error log file you will see this message:

mysqld got exception 0xc000001d

This error message occurs because you are also using a CPU that does not support the VPSRLQ instruction and indicates that the CPU instruction that was attempted is not supported.

To fix this error, you must install SP1. This adds the required operating system support for the CPU capability detection and disables that support when the CPU does not have the required instructions.

Alternatively, install an older version of MySQL, such as 5.6.

There are different methods to install MySQL on Microsoft Windows.

MySQL Installer Method

The simplest and recommended method is to download MySQL Installer (for Windows) and let it install and configure all of the MySQL products on your system. Here is how:

  1. Download MySQL Installer from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ and execute it.

    Note

    Unlike the standard MySQL Installer, the smaller "web-community" version does not bundle any MySQL applications but it will download the MySQL products you choose to install.

  2. Choose the appropriate Setup Type for your system. Typically you will choose Developer Default to install MySQL server and other MySQL tools related to MySQL development, helpful tools like MySQL Workbench. Or, choose the Custom setup type to manually select your desired MySQL products.

    Note

    Multiple versions of MySQL server can exist on a single system. You can choose one or multiple versions.

  3. Complete the installation process by following the MySQL Installation wizard's instructions. This will install several MySQL products and start the MySQL server.

MySQL is now installed. If you configured MySQL as a service, then Windows will automatically start MySQL server every time you restart your system.

Note

You probably also installed other helpful MySQL products like MySQL Workbench and MySQL Notifier on your system. Consider loading Chapter 29, MySQL Workbench to check your new MySQL server connection, and Section 2.3.4, “MySQL Notifier” to view the connection's status. By default, these two programs automatically start after installing MySQL.

This process also installs the MySQL Installer application on your system, and later you can use MySQL Installer to upgrade or reconfigure your MySQL products.

Additional Installation Information

It is possible to run MySQL as a standard application or as a Windows service. By using a service, you can monitor and control the operation of the server through the standard Windows service management tools. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

Generally, you should install MySQL on Windows using an account that has administrator rights. Otherwise, you may encounter problems with certain operations such as editing the PATH environment variable or accessing the Service Control Manager. Once installed, MySQL does not need to be executed using a user with Administrator privileges.

For a list of limitations on the use of MySQL on the Windows platform, see Section C.10.6, “Windows Platform Limitations”.

In addition to the MySQL Server package, you may need or want additional components to use MySQL with your application or development environment. These include, but are not limited to:

  • To connect to the MySQL server using ODBC, you must have a Connector/ODBC driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/ODBC Developer Guide.

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/ODBC for you.

  • To use MySQL server with .NET applications, you must have the Connector/Net driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/Net Developer Guide.

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/NET for you.

MySQL distributions for Windows can be downloaded from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL for Windows is available in several distribution formats, detailed here. Generally speaking, you should use MySQL Installer. It contains more features and MySQL products than the older MSI, is simpler to use than the Zip file, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running. MySQL Installer automatically installs MySQL Server and additional MySQL products, creates an options file, starts the server, and enables you to create default user accounts. For more information on choosing a package, see Section 2.3.2, “Choosing An Installation Package”.

MySQL on Windows considerations:

  • Large Table Support

    If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer file system. Do not forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See Section 14.1.18, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

  • MySQL and Virus Checking Software

    Virus-scanning software such as Norton/Symantec Anti-Virus on directories containing MySQL data and temporary tables can cause issues, both in terms of the performance of MySQL and the virus-scanning software misidentifying the contents of the files as containing spam. This is due to the fingerprinting mechanism used by the virus-scanning software, and the way in which MySQL rapidly updates different files, which may be identified as a potential security risk.

    After installing MySQL Server, it is recommended that you disable virus scanning on the main directory (datadir) used to store your MySQL table data. There is usually a system built into the virus-scanning software to enable specific directories to be ignored.

    In addition, by default, MySQL creates temporary files in the standard Windows temporary directory. To prevent the temporary files also being scanned, configure a separate temporary directory for MySQL temporary files and add this directory to the virus scanning exclusion list. To do this, add a configuration option for the tmpdir parameter to your my.ini configuration file. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File”.

2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows

For MySQL 5.7 on Windows, the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7. Some Windows users prefer to install in C:\mysql, the directory that formerly was used as the default. However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the same.

All of the files are located within this parent directory, using the structure shown in the following table.

Table 2.4 Default MySQL Installation Layout for Microsoft Windows

DirectoryContents of DirectoryNotes
bin, scriptsmysqld server, client and utility programs 
%PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\Log files, databasesThe Windows system variable %PROGRAMDATA% defaults to C:\ProgramData
examplesExample programs and scripts 
includeInclude (header) files 
libLibraries 
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation 

If you install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, this package creates and sets up the data directory that the installed server will use, and also creates a pristine template data directory named data under the installation directory. After an installation has been performed using this package, the template data directory can be copied to set up additional MySQL instances. See Section 6.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

2.3.2 Choosing An Installation Package

For MySQL 5.7, there are multiple installation package formats to choose from when installing MySQL on Windows.

Note

Program Database (PDB) files (with file name extension pdb) provide information for debugging your MySQL installation in the event of a problem. These files are included in ZIP Archive distributions (but not MSI distributions) of MySQL.

  • MySQL Installer: This package has a file name similar to mysql-installer-community-5.7.18.0.msi or mysql-installer-commercial-5.7.18.0.msi, and utilizes MSIs to automatically install MySQL server and other products. It will download and apply updates to itself, and for each of the installed products. It also configures the additional non-server products.

    The installed products are configurable, and this includes: documentation with samples and examples, connectors (such as C, C++, J, NET, and ODBC), MySQL Workbench, MySQL Notifier, MySQL for Excel, and the MySQL Server with its components.

    Note

    As of MySQL 5.7.8, MySQL Installer no longer includes debugging binaries/information components (including PDB files). These are available in a separate Zip archive named mysql-VERSION-winx64-debug-test.zip for 64-bit and mysql-VERSION-win32-debug-test.zip for 32-bit.

    MySQL Installer operates on all MySQL supported versions of Windows (see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html).

    Note

    Because MySQL Installer is not a native component of Microsoft Windows and depends on .NET, it will not work on minimal installation options like the "Server Core" version of Windows Server 2008.

    For instructions on installing MySQL using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”.

  • The Noinstall Archives: These packages contain the files found in the complete installation package, with the exception of the GUI. This format does not include an automated installer, and must be manually installed and configured.

    Note

    As of MySQL 5.7.6, noinstall archives are split into two separate Zip files. The main package is named mysql-VERSION-winx64.zip for 64-bit and mysql-VERSION-win32.zip for 32-bit. This contains the components needed to use MySQL on your system. The optional MySQL test suite, MySQL benchmark suite, and debugging binaries/information components (including PDB files) are in a separate Zip file named mysql-VERSION-winx64-debug-test.zip for 64-bit and mysql-VERSION-win32-debug-test.zip for 32-bit.

    Before MySQL 5.7.6, a single noinstall archive contained both the main and debugging files.

MySQL Installer is recommended for most users.

Your choice of install package affects the installation process you must follow. If you choose to use MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”. If you choose to install a Noinstall archive, see Section 2.3.5, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

2.3.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer is a standalone application that manages MySQL products on Microsoft Windows. It installs, updates, removes, and configures MySQL products, and remains on the system as a separate application. MySQL Installer is only available for Microsoft Windows, and includes both GUI and command-line interfaces.

The supported MySQL products include:

Installer Package Types

  • Full: Bundles all of the MySQL products (including the MySQL server). The file size is over 300MB, and its name has the form mysql-installer-community-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 5.7 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

  • Web: Only contains MySQL Installer and configuration files, and it downloads the MySQL products you choose to install. The size of this file is about 2MB; the name of the file has the form mysql-installer-community-web-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 5.7 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

As a standalone application, MySQL Installer upgrades automatically when a new version becomes available.

Installer Editions

  • Community edition: Download this edition from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/. It installs the community edition of all MySQL products.

  • Commercial edition: Download this edition from either My Oracle Support (MOS) or https://edelivery.oracle.com/. It installs the commercial version of all MySQL products, including Workbench SE/EE, MySQL Enterprise Backup, and MySQL Enterprise Firewall. It also integrates with your MOS account.

    Note

    Entering your MOS credentials is optional when installing bundled MySQL products, but your credentials are required when choosing non-bundled MySQL products that MySQL Installer must download.

For notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL Installer, see MySQL Installer Release Notes.

MySQL Installer is compatible with existing installations, and adds them to its list of installed components. While the standard MySQL Installer is bundled with a specific version of MySQL server, a single MySQL Installer instance can install and manage multiple MySQL server versions. For example, a single MySQL Installer instance can install (and update) versions 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7 on the same host.

Note

A single host cannot have both community and commercial editions of MySQL server installed. For example, if you want both MySQL Server 5.6 and 5.7 installed on a single host, both must be the same edition.

MySQL Installer handles the initial configuration and set up of the applications. For example:

  • It creates the configuration file (my.ini) that is used to configure the MySQL server. The values written to this file are influenced by choices you make during the installation process.

    Note

    Some definitions are host dependent. For example, query_cache is enabled if the host has fewer than three cores.

  • It can optionally import example databases.

  • By default, a Windows service for the MySQL server is added.

  • It can optionally create MySQL Server user accounts with configurable permissions based on general roles, such as DB Administrator, DB Designer, and Backup Admin. It optionally creates a Windows user named MysqlSys with limited privileges, which would then run the MySQL Server.

    User accounts may also be added and configured in MySQL Workbench.

  • Checking Show Advanced Options allows additional Logging Options to be set. This includes defining custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

MySQL Installer can optionally check for updated components and download them for you.

2.3.3.1 MySQL Installer GUI

Installing MySQL Installer adds a link to the Start menu under the MySQL group. Click Start, All Programs, MySQL, MySQL Installer to reload the MySQL Installer GUI.

Note

Full permissions are granted to the user executing MySQL Installer to all generated files, such as my.ini. This does not apply to files and directories for specific products, such as the MySQL server data directory in %ProgramData% that is owned by SYSTEM.

MySQL Installer requires you to accept the license agreement before it will install MySQL products.

Figure 2.7 MySQL Installer - License Agreement

MySQL Installer - License Agreement

Installing New Packages

Choose the appropriate Setup Type for your system. This type determines which MySQL products are initially installed on your system, or select Custom to manually choose the products.

  • Developer: Install all products needed to develop applications with MySQL. This is the default option.

  • Server only: Only install the MySQL server.

  • Client only: Only install the MySQL client products, such as MySQL Workbench. This does not include the MySQL server.

  • Full: Install all available MySQL products.

  • Custom: Manually select the MySQL products to install, and optionally configure custom MySQL data and installation paths.

    Note

    After the initial installation, you may use MySQL Installer to manually select MySQL products to install or remove. In other words, MySQL Installer becomes a MySQL product management system.

Figure 2.8 MySQL Installer - Choosing a Setup Type

MySQL Installer - Choosing a Setup Type

MySQL Installer checks your system for the external requirements (prerequisites) required to install the selected MySQL products. MySQL Installer can download and install some prerequisites, but others require manual intervention. Download and install all prerequisites that have Status set to "Manual". Click Check to recheck if a manual prerequisite was installed. After manually installing those requirements, click Execute to download and install the other prerequisites. Once finished, click Next to continue.

Figure 2.9 MySQL Installer - Check Requirements

MySQL Installer - Check Requirements

The next window lists the MySQL products that are scheduled for installation:

Figure 2.10 MySQL Installer - Installation Progress

MySQL Installer - Installation Progress

As components are installed, their Status changes from a progress percentage to "Complete".

After all components are installed, the next step configures some of the recently installed MySQL products. The Configuration Overview window displays the progress and then loads a configuration window, if required. Our example configures MySQL Server 5.6.x.

Configuring MySQL Server

Configuring the MySQL server begins with defining several Type and Networking options.

Figure 2.11 MySQL Installer - Configuration Overview

MySQL Installer - Configuration Overview

Server Configuration Type

Choose the MySQL server configuration type that describes your setup. This setting defines the amount of system resources (memory) that will be assigned to your MySQL server instance.

  • Developer: A machine that will host many other applications, and typically this is your personal workstation. This option configures MySQL to use the least amount of memory.

  • Server: Several other applications will be running on this machine, such as a web server. This option configures MySQL to use a medium amount of memory.

  • Dedicated: A machine that is dedicated to running the MySQL server. Because no other major applications will run on this server, such as a web server, this option configures MySQL to use the majority of available memory.

Connectivity

Connectivity options control how the connection to MySQL is made. Options include:

  • TCP/IP: You may enable TCP/IP Networking here as otherwise only localhost connections are allowed. Also define the Port Number and whether to open the firewall port for network access.

  • Named Pipe: Enable and define the pipe name, similar to using the --enable-named-pipe option.

  • Shared Memory: Enable and then define the memory name, similar to using the --shared-memory option.

Advanced Configuration

Check Show Advanced Options to set additional Logging Options. This includes defining custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

Figure 2.12 MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Type and Networking

MySQL Installer- MySQL Server Configuration: Type and Networking

Accounts and Roles

Next, define your MySQL account information. Assigning a root password is required.

Optionally, you can add additional MySQL user accounts with predefined user roles. Each predefined role, such as "DB Admin", are configured with their own set of privileges. For example, the "DB Admin" role has more privileges than the "DB Designer" role. Click the Role dropdown for a list of role descriptions.

Note

If the MySQL Server is already installed, then you must also enter the Current Root Password.

Figure 2.13 MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: User Accounts and Roles

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: User Accounts and Roles

Figure 2.14 MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: User Accounts and Roles: Adding a User

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: User Accounts and Roles: Adding a User

Windows Service

Next, configure the Windows Service details. This includes the service name, whether the MySQL server should be loaded at startup, and how the MySQL server Windows service is executed.

Figure 2.15 MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Windows Service

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Windows Service

Note

When configuring Run Windows Services as ... using a Custom User, the custom user must have privileges to log on to Microsoft Windows as a service. The Next button will be disabled until this user is configured with the required privileges.

On Microsoft Windows 7, this is configured by loading the Start Menu, Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Local Security Policy, Local Policies, User Rights Assignment, then Log On As A Service. Choose Add User or Group here to add the custom user, and then OK, OK to save.

Plugins and Extensions

Next, optionally enable MySQL plugins and extensions. In this example we enable X Plugin to use MySQL as a Document Store.

Figure 2.16 MySQL Installer - Plugins and Extensions

MySQL Installer - Plugins and Extensions

For additional information about enabling X Plugin, see Section 3.3, “Setting Up MySQL as a Document Store”. This feature was added in MySQL Server 5.7.12.

Note

The Plugins and Extensions screen of the MySQL Installer only comes up for a fresh installation of MySQL. If you are upgrading from a previous MySQL 5.7 version, you need to execute the installer again and select the reconfigure MySQL Server option.

Advanced Options

The next configuration step is available if the Advanced Configuration option was checked. This section includes options that are related to the MySQL log files:

Figure 2.17 MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Logging Options

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Logging Options

Click Next to continue on to the final page before all of the requested changes are applied. This Apply Server Configuration page details the configuration steps that will be performed.

Figure 2.18 MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Apply Server Configuration

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Apply Server Configuration

Click Execute to execute the configuration steps. The icon for each step toggles from white to green on success, or the process stops on failure. Click the Log tab to view the log.

After the MySQL Installer configuration process is finished, MySQL Installer reloads the opening page where you can execute other installation and configuration related actions.

MySQL Installer is added to the Microsoft Windows Start menu under the MySQL group. Opening MySQL Installer loads its dashboard where installed MySQL products are listed, and other MySQL Installer actions are available:

Figure 2.19 MySQL Installer - Main Dashboard

MySQL Installer - Main Dashboard

Adding MySQL Products

Click Add to add new products. This loads the Select Products and Features page:

Figure 2.20 MySQL Installer - Select Products and Features

MySQL Installer - Select Products and Features

From here, choose the MySQL products you want to install from the left Available Products pane, and then click the green right arrow to queue products for installation.

Optionally, click Edit to open the product and features search filter:

Figure 2.21 MySQL Installer - Select Products and Features Filter

MySQL Installer - Select Products and Features Filter

For example, you might choose to include Pre-Release products in your selections, such as a Beta product that has not yet reached General Availability (GA) status.

Select all of the MySQL products you want to install, then click Next to continue using the defaults, or highlight a selected product and click Advanced Options to optionally alter options such as the MySQL server data and installation paths. Click Execute to execute the installation process to install all of the selected products.

2.3.3.1.1 MySQL Product Catalog

MySQL Installer stores a MySQL product catalog. The catalog can be updated either manually or automatically, and the catalog change history is also available. The automatic update is enabled by default.

Note

The product catalog update also checks for a newer version of MySQL Installer, and prompts for an update if one is present.

Manual updates

You can update the MySQL product catalog at any time by clicking Catalog on the Installer dashboard.

Figure 2.22 MySQL Installer - Open the MySQL Product Catalog

MySQL Installer - Open the MySQL Product Catalog

From there, click Execute to update the product catalog.

Automatic updates

MySQL Installer can automatically update the MySQL product catalog. By default, this feature is enabled to execute each day at 12:00 AM. To configure this feature, click the wrench icon on the Installer dashboard.

The next window configures the Automatic Catalog Update. Enable or disable this feature, and also set the hour.

Figure 2.23 MySQL Installer - Configure the Catalog Scheduler

MySQL Installer - Configure the Catalog Scheduler

This option uses the Windows Task Scheduler to schedule a task named "ManifestUpdate".

Change History

MySQL Installer tracks the change history for all of the MySQL products. Click Catalog from the dashboard, optionally update the catalog (or, toggle the Do not update at this time checkbox), click Next/Execute, and then view the change history.

Figure 2.24 MySQL Installer - Catalog Change History

MySQL Installer - Catalog Change History

2.3.3.1.2 Remove MySQL Products

MySQL Installer can also remove MySQL products from your system. To remove a MySQL product, click Remove from the Installer dashboard. This opens a window with a list of installed MySQL products. Select the MySQL products you want to remove (uninstall), and then click Execute to begin the removal process.

Note

To select all MySQL products, click the [ ] checkbox to the left of the Product label.

Figure 2.25 MySQL Installer - Removing Products: Select

MySQL Installer - Removing Products: Select

Figure 2.26 MySQL Installer - Removing Products: Executed

MySQL Installer - Removing Products: Executed

2.3.3.1.3 Alter MySQL Products

Use MySQL Installer to modify, configure, or upgrade your MySQL product installations.

Upgrade

Upgradable MySQL products are listed on the main dashboard with an arrow icon ( ) next to their version number.

Figure 2.27 MySQL Installer - Upgrade a MySQL Product

MySQL Installer - Upgrade a MySQL Product

Note

The "upgrade" functionality requires a current product catalog. This catalog is updated either manually or automatically (daily) by enabling the Automatic Catalog Update feature. For additional information, see Section 2.3.3.1.1, “MySQL Product Catalog”.

Click Upgrade to upgrade the available products. Our example indicates that MySQL Workbench 6.2.4 can be upgraded version 6.3.1 or 6.2.5, and MySQL server from 5.5.41 to 5.5.42.

Figure 2.28 MySQL Installer - Select Products To Upgrade

MySQL Installer - Select Products To Upgrade

If multiple upgrade versions are available (such as our MySQL Workbench example above), select the desired version for the upgrade in the Available Upgrades area.

Note

Optionally, click the Changes link to view the version's release notes.

After selecting (checking) the products and versions to upgrade, click Next to begin the upgrade process.

Figure 2.29 MySQL Installer - Apply Updates

MySQL Installer - Apply Updates

A MySQL server upgrade will also check and upgrade the server's database. Although optional, this step is recommended.

Figure 2.30 MySQL Installer - Check and Upgrade Database

MySQL Installer - Check and Upgrade Database

Upon completion, your upgraded products will be upgraded and available to use. A MySQL server upgrade also restarts the MySQL server.

Reconfigure

Some MySQL products, such as the MySQL server, include a Reconfigure option. It opens the same configuration options that were set when the MySQL product was installed, and is pre-populated with the current values.

To execute, click the Reconfigure link under the Quick Action column on the main dashboard for the MySQL product that you want to reconfigure.

Figure 2.31 MySQL Installer - Reconfigure a MySQL Product

MySQL Installer - Reconfigure a MySQL Product

In the case of the MySQL server, this opens a configuration wizard that relates to the selected product. For example, for MySQL Server this includes setting the type, ports, log paths, and so on.

Modify

Many MySQL products contain feature components that can be added or removed. For example, Debug binaries and Client Programs are subcomponents of the MySQL server.

The modify the features of a product, click Modify on the main dashboard.

Figure 2.32 MySQL Installer - Modify Product Features

MySQL Installer - Modify Product Features

Click Execute to execute the modification request.

2.3.3.2 MySQL Installer Console

MySQLInstallerConsole provides functionality similar to the GUI version of MySQL Installer, but from the command line. It is installed when MySQL Installer is initially executed, and then available within the MySQL Installer directory. Typically that is in C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer\, and the console must be executed with administrative privileges.

To use, invoke the Command Prompt with administrative privileges by choosing Start, Accessories, then right-click on Command Prompt and choose Run as administrator. And from the command line, optionally change the directory to where MySQLInstallerConsole.exe is located:

C:\> cd Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows
C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows> MySQLInstallerConsole.exe help
=================== Start Initialization ===================
MySQL Installer is running in Community mode

Attempting to update manifest.
Initializing product requirements
Loading product catalog
Checking for product catalog snippets
Checking for product packages in the bundle
Categorizing product catalog
Finding all installed packages.
Your product catalog was last updated at 11/1/2016 4:10:38 PM
=================== End Initialization ===================

The following commands are available:

Configure - Configures one or more of your installed programs.
Help      - Provides list of available commands.
Install   - Install and configure one or more available MySQL programs.
List      - Provides an interactive way to list all products available.
Modify    - Modifies the features of installed products.
Remove    - Removes one or more products from your system.
Status    - Shows the status of all installed products.
Update    - Update the current product catalog.
Upgrade   - Upgrades one or more of your installed programs.

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe supports the following options, which are specified on the command line:

Note

Configuration block values that contain a colon (":") must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6".

  • configure [product1]:[setting]=[value]; [product2]:[setting]=[value]; [...]

    Configure one or more MySQL products on your system. Multiple setting=value pairs can be configured for each product.

    Switches include:

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure -showsettings server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure server:port=3307
    
  • help [command]

    Displays a help message with usage examples, and then exits. Pass in an additional command to receive help specific to that command.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help install
    
  • install [product]:[features]:[config block]:[config block]:[config block]; [...]

    Install one or more MySQL products on your system.

    Switches and syntax options include:

    • -type=[SetupType] : Installs a predefined set of software. The "SetupType" can be one of the following:

      Note

      Non-custom setup types can only be chosen if no other MySQL products are installed.

      • Developer: Installs a complete development environment.

      • Server: Installs a single MySQL server

      • Client: Installs client programs and libraries

      • Full: Installs everything

      • Custom: Installs user selected products. This is the default option.

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    • [config block]: One or more configuration blocks can be specified. Each configuration block is a semicolon separated list of key value pairs. A block can include either a "config" or "user" type key, where "config" is the default type if one is not defined.

      Configuration block values that contain a colon (":") must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6".

      Only one "config" type block can be defined per product. A "user" block should be defined for each user that should be created during the product's installation.

      Note

      Adding users is not supported when a product is being reconfigured.

    • [feature]: The feature block is a semicolon separated list of features, or '*' to select all features.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25:*:port=3307;serverid=2:type=user;username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64 -silent
    

    An example that passes in additional configuration blocks, broken up by ^ to fit this screen:

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64:*:type=config;openfirewall=true; ^
              generallog=true;binlog=true;serverid=3306;enable_tcpip=true;port=3306;rootpasswd=pass; ^
              installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6":type=user;datadir="C:\MySQL\data";username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    
  • list

    Lists an interactive console where all of the available MySQL products can be searched. Execute MySQLInstallerConsole list to launch the console, and enter in a substring to search.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole list
    
  • modify [product1:-removelist|+addlist] [product2:-removelist|+addlist] [...]

    Modifies or displays features of a previously installed MySQL product.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:+documentation
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:-debug
    
  • remove [product1] [product2] [...]

    Removes one ore more products from your system.

    • * : Pass in * to remove all of the MySQL products.

    • -continue : Continue the operation even if an error occurs.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove server
    
  • status

    Provides a quick overview of the MySQL products that are installed on the system. Information includes product name and version, architecture, date installed, and install location.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole status
    
  • update

    Downloads the latest MySQL product catalog to your system. On success, the download catalog will be applied the next time either MySQLInstaller or MySQLInstallerConsole is executed.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole update
    
    Note

    The Automatic Catalog Update GUI option executes this command from the Windows Task Scheduler.

  • upgrade [product1:version] [product2:version] [...]

    Upgrades one or more products on your system. Syntax options include:

    • * : Pass in * to upgrade all products to the latest version, or pass in specific products.

    • ! : Pass in ! as a version number to upgrade the MySQL product to its latest version.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:!
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5 excel:1.3.2
    

2.3.4 MySQL Notifier

MySQL Notifier is a tool that enables you to monitor and adjust the status of your local and remote MySQL server instances through an indicator that resides in the system tray. MySQL Notifier also gives quick access to MySQL Workbench through its context menu.

The MySQL Notifier is installed by MySQL Installer, and (by default) will start-up when Microsoft Windows is started.

To install, download and execute the MySQL Installer, be sure the MySQL Notifier product is selected, then proceed with the installation. See the MySQL Installer manual for additional details.

For notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL Notifier, see the MySQL Notifier Release Notes.

Visit the MySQL Notifier forum for additional MySQL Notifier help and support.

Features include:

  • Start, Stop, and Restart instances of the MySQL Server.

  • Automatically detects (and adds) new MySQL Server services. These are listed under Manage Monitored Items, and may also be configured.

  • The Tray icon changes, depending on the status. It's green if all monitored MySQL Server instances are running, or red if at least one service is stopped. The Update MySQL Notifier tray icon based on service status option, which dictates this behavior, is enabled by default for each service.

  • Links to other applications like MySQL Workbench, MySQL Installer, and the MySQL Utilities. For example, choosing Manage Instance will load the MySQL Workbench Server Administration window for that particular instance.

  • If MySQL Workbench is also installed, then the Manage Instance and SQL Editor options are available for local (but not remote) MySQL instances.

  • Monitors both local and remote MySQL instances.

2.3.4.1 MySQL Notifier Usage

MySQL Notifier resides in the system tray and provides visual status information for your MySQL server instances. A green icon is displayed at the top left corner of the tray icon if the current MySQL server is running, or a red icon if the service is stopped.

MySQL Notifier automatically adds discovered MySQL services on the local machine, and each service is saved and configurable. By default, the Automatically add new services whose name contains option is enabled and set to mysql. Related Notifications Options include being notified when new services are either discovered or experience status changes, and are also enabled by default. And uninstalling a service will also remove the service from MySQL Notifier.

Clicking the system tray icon will reveal several options, as the follow figures show:

The Service Instance menu is the main MySQL Notifier window, and enables you to Stop, Start, and Restart the MySQL server.

Figure 2.33 MySQL Notifier Service Instance menu

MySQL Notifier Service Instance menu

The Actions menu includes several links to external applications (if they are installed), and a Refresh Status option to manually refresh the status of all monitored services (in both local and remote computers) and MySQL instances.

Note

The main menu will not show the Actions menu when there are no services being monitored by MySQL Notifier.

Figure 2.34 MySQL Notifier Actions menu

MySQL Notifier Actions menu

The Actions, Options menu configures MySQL Notifier and includes options to:

  • Use colorful status icons: Enables a colorful style of icons for the tray of MySQL Notifier.

  • Run at Windows Startup: Allows the application to be loaded when Microsoft Windows starts.

  • Automatically Check For Updates Every # Weeks: Checks for a new version of MySQL Notifier, and runs this check every # weeks.

  • Automatically add new services whose name contains: The text used to filter services and add them automatically to the monitored list of the local computer running MySQL Notifier, and on remote computers already monitoring Windows services.

  • Ping monitored MySQL Server instances every # seconds: The interval (in seconds) to ping monitored MySQL Server instances for status changes. Longer intervals might be necessary if the list of monitored remote instances is large.

  • Notify me when a service is automatically added: Will display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a newly discovered service is added to the monitored services list.

  • Notify me when a service changes status: Will display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a monitored service changes its status.

  • Automatic connections migration delayed until: When there are connections to migrate, postpone the migration by one hour, one day, one week, one month, or indefinitely.

Figure 2.35 MySQL Notifier Options menu

MySQL Notifier Options menu

The Actions, Manage Monitored Items menu enables you to configure the monitored services and MySQL instances. First, with the Services tab open:

Figure 2.36 MySQL Notifier Manage Services menu

MySQL Notifier Manage Services menu

The Instances tab is similar:

Figure 2.37 MySQL Notifier Manage Instances menu

MySQL Notifier Manage Instances menu

Adding a service or instance (after clicking Add in the Manage Monitored Items window) enables you to select a running Microsoft Windows service or instance connection, and configure MySQL Notifier to monitor it. Add a new service or instance by clicking service name from the list, then OK to accept. Multiple services and instances may be selected.

Figure 2.38 MySQL Notifier Adding new services

MySQL Notifier Adding new services

Add instances:

Figure 2.39 MySQL Notifier Adding new instances

MySQL Notifier Adding new instances

Troubleshooting

For issues that are not documented here, visit the MySQL Notifier Support Forum for MySQL Notifier help and support.

  • Problem: attempting to start/stop/restart a MySQL service might generate an error similar to "The Service MySQLVERSION failed the most recent status change request with the message "The service mysqlVERSION was not found in the Windows Services".

    Explanation: this is a case-sensitivity issue, in that the service name is MySQLVERSION compared to having mysqlVERSION in the configuration file.

    Solution: either update your MySQL Notifier configuration file with the correct information, or stop MySQL Notifier and delete this configuration file. The MySQL Notifier configuration file is located at %APPDATA%\Oracle\MySQL Notifier\settings.config where %APPDATA% is a variable and depends on your system. A typical location is "C:\Users\YourUsername\AppData\Running\Oracle\MySQL Notifier\settings.config" where YourUsername is your system's user name. In this file, and within the ServerList section, change the ServerName values from lowercase to the actual service names. For example, change mysqlVERSION to MySQLVERSION, save, and then restart MySQL Notifier. Alternatively, stop MySQL Notifier, delete this file, then restart MySQL Notifier.

  • Problem: when connecting to a remote computer for the purpose of monitoring a remote Windows service, the Add Service dialog does not always show all the services shown in the Windows Services console.

    Explanation: this behavior is governed by the operating system and the outcome is expected when working with nondomain user accounts. For a complete description of the behavior, see the User Account Control and WMI article from Microsoft.

    Solution: when the remote computer is in a compatible domain, it is recommended that domain user accounts are used to connect through WMI to a remote computer. For detailed setup instructions using WMI, see Section 2.3.4.2, “Setting Up Remote Monitoring in MySQL Notifier”.

    Alternatively, when domain user accounts are not available, Microsoft provides a less secure workaround that should only be implemented with caution. For more information, see the Description of User Account Control and remote restrictions in Windows Vista KB article from Microsoft.

2.3.4.2 Setting Up Remote Monitoring in MySQL Notifier

MySQL Notifier uses Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to manage and monitor services on remote computers. This section explains how it works and how to set up your system to monitor remote MySQL instances.

In order to configure WMI, it is important to understand that the underlying Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) architecture is doing the WMI work. Specifically, MySQL Notifier is using asynchronous notification queries on remote Microsoft Windows hosts as .NET events. These events send an asynchronous callback to the computer running MySQL Notifier so it knows when a service status has changed on the remote computer. Asynchronous notifications offer the best performance compared to semisynchronous notifications or synchronous notifications that use timers.

Asynchronous notification requires the remote computer to send a callback to the client computer (thus opening a reverse connection), so the Windows Firewall and DCOM settings must be properly configured for the communication to function properly.

Figure 2.40 MySQL Notifier Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

MySQL Notifier Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

Most of the common errors thrown by asynchronous WMI notifications are related to Windows Firewall blocking the communication, or to DCOM / WMI settings not being set up properly. For a list of common errors with solutions, see Common Errors.

The following steps are required to make WMI function. These steps are divided between two machines. A single host computer that runs MySQL Notifier (Computer A), and multiple remote machines that are being monitored (Computer B).

Computer running MySQL Notifier (Computer A)
  1. Enable remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor, or using NETSH:

    Using the Group Policy Editor:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, expand Computer Configuration.

    3. Expand Administrative Templates, then Network, Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.

    5. Double-click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception to open a configuration window.

    6. Check the Enabled option button and then click OK.

    Using the NETSH command:

    Note

    The "netsh firewall" command is deprecated as of Microsoft Server 2008 and Vista, and replaced with "netsh advfirewall firewall".

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and select Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
      
  2. Open the DCOM port TCP 135:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and select Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=DCOM_TCP135 protocol=TCP localport=135 dir=in action=allow
      
  3. Add the client application that contains the sink for the callback (MySqlNotifier.exe) to the Windows Firewall Exceptions List (use either the Windows Firewall configuration or NETSH):

    Using the Windows Firewall configuration:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Windows Firewall.

    2. In the Windows Firewall window's left panel, click Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall.

    3. In the Allowed Programs window, click Change Settings and do one of the following:

      • If MySqlNotifier.exe is in the Allowed programs and features list, make sure it is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

      • If MySqlNotifier.exe is not in the list, click Allow another program....

        1. In the Add a Program window, select the MySqlNotifier.exe if it exists in the Programs list, otherwise click Browse... and go to the directory where MySqlNotifier.exe was installed to select it, then click Add.

        2. Make sure MySqlNotifier.exe is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command, where you change "[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]":

      NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=MySqlNotifier program=[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]\MySqlNotifier.exe action=allow dir=in
      
  4. If Computer B is either a member of WORKGROUP or is in a different domain that is untrusted by Computer A, then the callback connection (Connection 2) is created as an Anonymous connection. To grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access, and then click OK.

Monitored Remote Computer (Computer B)

If the user account that is logged on to the computer running the MySQL Notifier (Computer A) is a local administrator on the remote computer (Computer B), such that the same account is an administrator on Computer B, you can skip to the "Allow for remote administration" step.

Setting DCOM security to allow a non-administrator user to access a computer remotely:

  1. Grant "DCOM remote launch" and activation permissions for a user or group:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Launch and Activation Permission, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, follow these steps if your name or your group does not appear in the Groups or user names list:

      1. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, click Add.

      2. In the Select Users or Groups dialog box, add your name and the group in the Enter the object names to select box, and then click OK.

    6. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, select your user and group in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Launch, select Remote Activation, and then click OK.

    Grant DCOM remote access permissions:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access, and then click OK.

  2. Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management.

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the Services and Applications tree.

    4. Right-click the WMI Control icon and select Properties.

    5. In the WMI Control Properties window, click the Security tab.

    6. In the Security tab, select the namespace and click Security. Root/CIMV2 is a commonly used namespace.

    7. Locate the appropriate account and check Remote Enable in the Permissions list.

  3. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor or using NETSH:

    Using the Group Policy Editor:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click Computer Configuration.

    3. Double-click Administrative Templates, then Network, Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.

    5. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception.

    6. On the Action menu either select Edit, or double-click the selection from the previous step.

    7. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK.

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
      
  4. Confirm that the user account you are logging in with uses the Name value and not the Full Name value:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management.

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the System Tools then Local Users and Groups.

    4. Click the Users node, and on the right side panel locate your user and make sure it uses the Name value to connect, and not the Full Name value.

Common Errors
  • 0x80070005

    • DCOM Security was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Setting DCOM security... step).

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x8007000E

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x80041003

    • Access to the remote WMI namespace was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace step).

  • 0x800706BA

    • The DCOM port is not open on the client computers (Computer A) firewall. See the Open the DCOM port TCP 135 step for Computer A.

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is inaccessible because its network location is set to Public. Make sure you can access it through the Windows Explorer.

2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive

Users who are installing from the noinstall package can use the instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. The process for installing MySQL from a Zip archive is as follows:

  1. Extract the main archive to the desired install directory

    Optional: also extract the debug-test archive if you plan to execute the MySQL benchmark and test suite

  2. Create an option file

  3. Choose a MySQL server type

  4. Initialize MySQL

  5. Start the MySQL server

  6. Secure the default user accounts

This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.5.1 Extracting the Install Archive

To install MySQL manually, do the following:

  1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to Section 2.3.8, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”, before beginning the upgrade process.

  2. Make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator privileges.

  3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally, the MySQL server is installed in C:\mysql. The MySQL Installation Wizard installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL. If you do not install MySQL at C:\mysql, you must specify the path to the install directory during startup or in an option file. See Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File”.

    Note

    The MySQL Installer installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL.

  4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation location using your preferred Zip archive tool. Some tools may extract the archive to a folder within your chosen installation location. If this occurs, you can move the contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation location.

2.3.5.2 Creating an Option File

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that are used every time the server starts, you may find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is particularly true under the following circumstances:

  • The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data).

  • You need to tune the server settings, such as memory, cache, or InnoDB configuration information.

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for option files in several locations, such as the Windows directory, C:\, and the MySQL installation directory (for the full list of locations, see Section 5.2.6, “Using Option Files”). The Windows directory typically is named something like C:\WINDOWS. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

MySQL looks for options in each location first in the my.ini file, and then in the my.cnf file. However, to avoid confusion, it is best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where C: is not the boot drive, your only option is to use the my.ini file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

Note

When using the MySQL Installer to install MySQL Server, it will create the my.ini at the default location, and the user executing MySQL Installer is granted full permissions to this new my.ini file.

In other words, be sure that the MySQL Server user has permission to read the my.ini file.

You can also make use of the example option files included with your MySQL distribution; see Section 6.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is in E:\mydata\data, you can create an option file containing a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data

Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data

The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 5.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

As of MySQL 5.7.6, the Zip Archive no longer includes a data directory. To initialize a MySQL installation by creating the data directory and populating the tables in the mysql system database, initialize MySQL using either --initialize or --initialize-insecure. For additional information, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld”.

If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the data directory to the new location. For example, if you want to use E:\mydata as the data directory instead, you must do two things:

  1. Move the entire data directory and all of its contents from the default location (for example C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data) to E:\mydata.

  2. Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start the server.

2.3.5.3 Selecting a MySQL Server Type

The following table shows the available servers for Windows in MySQL 5.7.

BinaryDescription
mysqldOptimized binary with named-pipe support
mysqld-debugLike mysqld, but compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

Each of the servers in a distribution support the same set of storage engines. The SHOW ENGINES statement displays which engines a given server supports.

All Windows MySQL 5.7 servers have support for symbolic linking of database directories.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. MySQL servers on Windows also support named pipes, if you start the server with the --enable-named-pipe option. It is necessary to use this option explicitly because some users have experienced problems with shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes were used. The default is to use TCP/IP regardless of platform because named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.

2.3.5.4 Initializing the Data Directory

If you installed MySQL using the Noinstall package, you may need to initialize the data directory:

2.3.5.5 Starting the Server for the First Time

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a Windows service.

The information here applies primarily if you installed MySQL using the Noinstall version, or if you wish to configure and test MySQL manually rather than with the GUI tools.

Note

The MySQL server will automatically start after using MySQL Installer, and MySQL Notifier can be used to start/stop/restart at any time.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7. Adjust the path names shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named-pipe connections.

MySQL for Windows also supports shared-memory connections if the server is started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=MEMORY option.

For information about which server binary to run, see Section 2.3.5.3, “Selecting a MySQL Server Type”.

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (or DOS window). In this way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

Note

The database must be initialized before MySQL can be started. For additional information about the initialization process, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld”.

To start the server, enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqld" --console

For a server that includes InnoDB support, you should see the messages similar to those following as it starts (the path names and sizes may differ):

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '5.7.18'  socket: ''  port: 3306

The server continues to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data by default). The error log is the file with the .err extension, and may be set using the --log-error option.

Note

The initial root account in the MySQL grant tables has no password. After starting the server, you should set up a password for it using the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

2.3.5.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

Note

MySQL Notifier can also be used to start/stop/restart the MySQL server.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (or DOS window) and enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqld"

The path to mysqld may vary depending on the install location of MySQL on your system.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Microsoft Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. By default, the error log is located in the C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data directory. It is the file with a suffix of .err, or may be specified by passing in the --log-error option. Alternatively, you can try to start the server with the --console option; in this case, the server may display some useful information on the screen that will help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with the --standalone and --debug options. In this case, mysqld writes a log file C:\mysqld.trace that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See Section 27.5.3, “The DBUG Package”.

Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld supports.

2.3.5.7 Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin)

    Note

    There must be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field.

    Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. The new PATH value should now be available to any new command shell you open, allowing you to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

2.3.5.8 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On Windows, the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service, so that MySQL starts and stops automatically when Windows starts and stops. A MySQL server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility. Generally, to install MySQL as a Windows service you should be logged in using an account that has administrator rights.

Note

MySQL Notifier can also be used to monitor the status of the MySQL service.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows Vista, and Server 2003). To avoid conflicts, it is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from the command line.

Installing the service

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqladmin"
          -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Install the server as a service using this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqld" --install

The service-installation command does not start the server. Instructions for that are given later in this section.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin), and there should be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field. Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

The following additional arguments can be used when installing the service:

  • You can specify a service name immediately following the --install option. The default service name is MySQL.

  • If a service name is given, it can be followed by a single option. By convention, this should be --defaults-file=file_name to specify the name of an option file from which the server should read options when it starts.

    The use of a single option other than --defaults-file is possible but discouraged. --defaults-file is more flexible because it enables you to specify multiple startup options for the server by placing them in the named option file.

  • You can also specify a --local-service option following the service name. This causes the server to run using the LocalService Windows account that has limited system privileges. If both --defaults-file and --local-service are given following the service name, they can be in any order.

For a MySQL server that is installed as a Windows service, the following rules determine the service name and option files that the server uses:

  • If the service-installation command specifies no service name or the default service name (MySQL) following the --install option, the server uses the service name of MySQL and reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a service name other than MySQL following the --install option, the server uses that service name. It reads options from the [mysqld] group and the group that has the same name as the service in the standard option files. This enables you to use the [mysqld] group for options that should be used by all MySQL services, and an option group with the service name for use by the server installed with that service name.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server reads options the same way as described in the previous item, except that it reads options only from the named file and ignores the standard option files.

As a more complex example, consider the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqld"
          --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

Here, the default service name (MySQL) is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options from the [mysqld] option group, and only from the named file.

Note

On Windows, if the server is started with the --defaults-file and --install options, --install must be first. Otherwise, mysqld.exe will attempt to start the MySQL server.

You can also specify options as Start parameters in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Finally, before trying to start the MySQL service, make sure the user variables %TEMP% and %TMP% (and also %TMPDIR%, if it has ever been set) for the system user who is to run the service are pointing to a folder to which the user has write access. The default user for running the MySQL service is LocalSystem, and the default value for its %TEMP% and %TMP% is C:\Windows\Temp, a directory LocalSystem has write access to by default. However, if there are any changes to that default setup (for example, changes to the user who runs the service or to the mentioned user variables, or the --tmpdir option has been used to put the temporary directory somewhere else), the MySQL service might fail to run because write access to the temporary directory has not been granted to the proper user.

Starting the service

Once a MySQL server has been installed as a service, Windows starts the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using a NET START MySQL command. The NET command is not case sensitive.

When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld does not start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the MySQL data directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data). It is the file with a suffix of .err.

When a MySQL server has been installed as a service, and the service is running, Windows stops the service automatically when Windows shuts down. The server also can be stopped manually by using the Services utility, the NET STOP MySQL command, or the mysqladmin shutdown command.

You also have the choice of installing the server as a manual service if you do not wish for the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqld" --install-manual
Removing the service

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running by executing NET STOP MySQL. Then use the --remove option to remove it:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqld" --remove

If mysqld is not running as a service, you can start it from the command line. For instructions, see Section 2.3.5.6, “Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line”.

If you encounter difficulties during installation, see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

For more information about stopping or removing a MySQL Windows service, see Section 6.6.2.2, “Starting Multiple MySQL Instances as Windows Services”.

2.3.5.9 Testing The MySQL Installation

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqlshow"
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqlshow" -u root mysql
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysqladmin" version status proc
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\bin\mysql" test

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP addresses in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables. (Be sure that an account exists that specifies an IP address or you may not be able to connect.)

You can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the default pipe name.

If you have set a password for the root account, deleted the anonymous account, or created a new user account, then to connect to the MySQL server you must use the appropriate -u and -p options with the commands shown previously. See Section 5.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.

For more information about mysqlshow, see Section 5.5.8, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation

When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from starting. This section helps you diagnose and correct some of these errors.

Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log. The MySQL server uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that prevents the server from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your my.ini file. The default data directory location is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data, or C:\ProgramData\Mysql on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008. The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You need to change your folder options to see the directory and contents. For more information on the error log and understanding the content, see Section 6.4.2, “The Error Log”.

For information regarding possible errors, also consult the console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use the NET START MySQL command from the command line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

The following examples show other common error messages you might encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:

  • If the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database or other critical files, it displays these messages:

    System error 1067 has occurred.
    Fatal error: Can't open and lock privilege tables:
    Table 'mysql.user' doesn't exist
    

    These messages often occur when the MySQL base or data directories are installed in different locations than the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data, respectively).

    This situation can occur when MySQL is upgraded and installed to a new location, but the configuration file is not updated to reflect the new location. In addition, old and new configuration files might conflict. Be sure to delete or rename any old configuration files when upgrading MySQL.

    If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7, ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration (my.ini) file. Put the my.ini file in your Windows directory, typically C:\WINDOWS. To determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable, issue the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> echo %WINDIR%
    

    You can create or modify an option file with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is D:\MySQLdata, you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=E:/mysql
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:/MySQLdata
    

    Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.7
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:\\MySQLdata
    

    The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 5.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

    If you change the datadir value in your MySQL configuration file, you must move the contents of the existing MySQL data directory before restarting the MySQL server.

    See Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File”.

  • If you reinstall or upgrade MySQL without first stopping and removing the existing MySQL service and install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you might see this error:

    Error: Cannot create Windows service for MySql. Error: 0
    

    This occurs when the Configuration Wizard tries to install the service and finds an existing service with the same name.

    One solution to this problem is to choose a service name other than mysql when using the configuration wizard. This enables the new service to be installed correctly, but leaves the outdated service in place. Although this is harmless, it is best to remove old services that are no longer in use.

    To permanently remove the old mysql service, execute the following command as a user with administrative privileges, on the command line:

    C:\> sc delete mysql
    [SC] DeleteService SUCCESS
    

    If the sc utility is not available for your version of Windows, download the delsrv utility from http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/reskit/tools/existing/delsrv-o.asp and use the delsrv mysql syntax.

2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures

GUI tools exist that perform most of the tasks described in this section, including:

If necessary, initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. Windows distributions prior to MySQL 5.7.7 include a data directory with a set of preinitialized accounts in the mysql database. As of 5.7.7, Windows installation operations performed by MySQL Installer initialize the data directory automatically. For installation from a Zip package, you can initialize the data directory as described at Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld”.

Regarding passwords, if you installed MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you may have already assigned a passwords to the initial root account. (See Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”.) Otherwise, use the password-assignment procedure given in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

Before assigning passwords, you might want to try running some client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure that the server is running (see Section 2.3.5.5, “Starting the Server for the First Time”). You can also set up a MySQL service that runs automatically when Windows starts (see Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”).

These instructions assume that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer (see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”), the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7:

C:\> cd "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7"

A common installation location for installation from a Zip package is C:\mysql:

C:\> cd C:\mysql

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your command interpreter to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 2.3.5.7, “Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools”.

With the server running, issue the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include the minimum of mysql and information_schema. Before MySQL 5.7.7, a test database may also be created automatically.

The preceding command (and commands for other MySQL programs such as mysql) may not work if the correct MySQL account does not exist. For example, the program may fail with an error, or you may not be able to view all databases. If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer, the root user will have been created automatically with the password you supplied. In this case, you should use the -u root and -p options. (You must use those options if you have already secured the initial MySQL accounts.) With -p, the client program prompts for the root password. For example:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| engine_cost               |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| gtid_executed             |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| innodb_index_stats        |
| innodb_table_stats        |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| server_cost               |
| servers                   |
| slave_master_info         |
| slave_relay_log_info      |
| slave_worker_info         |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

C:\> bin\mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | mysql_native_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+

For more information about mysql and mysqlshow, see Section 5.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool”, and Section 5.5.8, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.3.8 Upgrading MySQL on Windows

To upgrade MySQL on Windows, follow these steps:

  1. Review Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for additional information on upgrading MySQL that is not specific to Windows.

  2. Always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 8.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  3. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.

  4. Before upgrading MySQL, stop the server. If the server is installed as a service, stop the service with the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> NET STOP MySQL
    

    If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, use mysqladmin to stop it. For example, before upgrading from MySQL 5.6 to 5.7, use mysqladmin from MySQL 5.6 as follows:

    C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
    
    Note

    If the MySQL root user account has a password, invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and enter the password when prompted.

  5. Before upgrading to MySQL 5.7 from a version previous to 4.1.5, or from a version of MySQL installed from a Zip archive to a version of MySQL installed with the MySQL Installation Wizard, you must first manually remove the previous installation and MySQL service (if the server is installed as a service).

    To remove the MySQL service, use the following command:

    C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove
    

    If you do not remove the existing service, the MySQL Installation Wizard may fail to properly install the new MySQL service.

  6. If you are using the MySQL Installer, start it as described in Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”.

  7. If you are upgrading MySQL from a Zip archive, extract the archive. You may either overwrite your existing MySQL installation (usually located at C:\mysql), or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql5. Overwriting the existing installation is recommended. However, for upgrades (as opposed to installing for the first time), you must remove the data directory from your existing MySQL installation to avoid replacing your current data files. To do so, follow these steps:

    1. Unzip the Zip archive in some location other than your current MySQL installation

    2. Remove the data directory

    3. Rezip the Zip archive

    4. Unzip the modified Zip archive on top of your existing installation

    Alternatively:

    1. Unzip the Zip archive in some location other than your current MySQL installation

    2. Remove the data directory

    3. Move the data directory from the current MySQL installation to the location of the just-removed data directory

    4. Remove the current MySQL installation

    5. Move the unzipped installation to the location of the just-removed installation

  8. If you were running MySQL as a Windows service and you had to remove the service earlier in this procedure, reinstall the service. (See Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.)

  9. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.

  10. As Administrator, run mysql_upgrade to check your tables, attempt to repair them if necessary, and update your grant tables if they have changed so that you can take advantage of any new capabilities. See Section 5.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”.

  11. If you encounter errors, see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

2.4 Installing MySQL on OS X

For a list of OS X versions that the MySQL server supports, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

MySQL for OS X is available in a number of different forms:

For additional information on using MySQL on OS X, see Section 2.4.1, “General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X”.

2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on OS X

You should keep the following issues and notes in mind:

  • As of MySQL server 5.7.8, the DMG bundles a launchd daemon instead of the deprecated startup item. Startup items do not function as of OS X 10.10 (Yosemite), so using launchd is preferred. The available MySQL preference pane under OS X System Preferences was also updated to use launchd.

  • You may need (or want) to create a specific mysql user to own the MySQL directory and data. You can do this through the Directory Utility, and the mysql user should already exist. For use in single user mode, an entry for _mysql (note the underscore prefix) should already exist within the system /etc/passwd file.

  • Because the MySQL package installer installs the MySQL contents into a version and platform specific directory, you can use this to upgrade and migrate your database between versions. You will need to either copy the data directory from the old version to the new version, or alternatively specify an alternative datadir value to set location of the data directory. By default, the MySQL directories are installed under /usr/local/.

  • You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for bash is:

    alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    

    For tcsh, use:

    alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
    

    Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. You can do this by modifying the appropriate startup file for your shell. For more information, see Section 5.2.1, “Invoking MySQL Programs”.

  • After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in /Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg.

  • Prior to OS X 10.7, MySQL server was bundled with OS X Server.

2.4.2 Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

Note

Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to stop all running MySQL server instances by using either the MySQL Manager Application (on OS X Server), the preference pane, or mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

To install MySQL using the package installer:

  1. Download the disk image (.dmg) file (the community version is available here) that contains the MySQL package installer. Double-click the file to mount the disk image and see its contents.

    Figure 2.41 MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

    MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

  2. Double-click the MySQL installer package. It will be named according to the version of MySQL you have downloaded. For example, if you have downloaded MySQL server 5.7.18, double-click mysql-5.7.18-osx-10.11-x86_64.pkg.

  3. You will be presented with the opening installer dialog. Click Continue to begin installation.

    Figure 2.42 MySQL Package Installer: Introduction

    MySQL Package Installer: Introduction

  4. If you have downloaded the community version of MySQL, you will be shown a copy of the relevant GNU General Public License. Click Continue and then Agree to continue.

  5. From the Installation Type page you can either click Install to execute the installation wizard using all defaults, click Customize to alter which components to install (MySQL server, Preference Pane, Launchd Support -- all enabled by default), or click Change Installation Location to change the type of installation, if available.

    Figure 2.43 MySQL Package Installer: Installation Type

    MySQL Package Installer: Installation Type

    Figure 2.44 MySQL Package Installer: Destination Select (Change Installation Location)

    MySQL Package Installer: Destination Select (Change Installation Location)

    Figure 2.45 MySQL Package Installer: Customize

    MySQL Package Installer: Customize

  6. Click Install to begin the installation process.

  7. Once the installation has been completed successfully, you will be provided with your temporary root password. This cannot be recovered, so you must save this password. For example:

    Figure 2.46 MySQL Package Installer: Temporary Root Password

    MySQL Package Installer: Temporary Root Password

    Note

    After logging into MySQL using this temporary password, MySQL will expire this password and require you to create a new password.

  8. Next is an Install Succeeded message with a short summary. Close the wizard.

    Figure 2.47 MySQL Package Installer: Summary

    MySQL Package Installer: Summary

MySQL server is now installed, but it is not loaded (or started) by default. Use either launchctl from the command line, or start MySQL by clicking "Start" using the MySQL preference pane. For additional information, see Section 2.4.3, “Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon”, and Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”. Use the MySQL Preference Pane or launchd to configure MySQL to automatically start at bootup.

When installing using the package installer, the files are installed into a directory within /usr/local matching the name of the installation version and platform. For example, the installer file mysql-5.7.18-osx10.11-x86_64.dmg installs MySQL into /usr/local/mysql-5.7.18-osx10.11-x86_64/ . The following table shows the layout of the installation directory.

Table 2.5 MySQL Installation Layout on OS X

DirectoryContents of Directory
bin, scriptsmysqld server, client and utility programs
dataLog files, databases
docsHelper documents, like the Release Notes and build information
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
manUnix manual pages
mysql-testMySQL test suite
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
support-filesScripts and sample configuration files
/tmp/mysql.sockLocation of the MySQL Unix socket

During the package installer process, a symbolic link from /usr/local/mysql to the version/platform specific directory created during installation will be created automatically.

2.4.3 Installing a MySQL Launch Daemon

OS X uses launch daemons to automatically start, stop, and manage processes and applications such as MySQL.

Note

Before MySQL 5.7.8, the OS X builds installed startup items instead of launchd daemons. However, startup items do not function as of OS X 10.10 (Yosemite). The OS X builds now install launchd daemons.

By default, the installation package (DMG) on OS X installs a launchd file named /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist that contains a plist definition similar to:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
            <string>--basedir=/usr/local/mysql</string>
            <string>--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data</string>
            <string>--plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin</string>
            <string>--log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err</string>
            <string>--pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.pid</string>
        </array>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
</dict>
</plist>

Note

Some users report that adding a plist DOCTYPE declaration causes the launchd operation to fail, despite it passing the lint check. We suspect it's a copy-n-paste error. The md5 checksum of a file containing the above snippet is 24710a27dc7a28fb7ee6d825129cd3cf.

To enable the launchd service, you can either:

  • Click Start MySQL Server from the MySQL preference pane.

    Figure 2.48 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

    MySQL Preference Pane: Location

    Figure 2.49 MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

    MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

  • Or, manually load the launchd file.

    shell> cd /Library/LaunchDaemons
    shell> sudo launchctl load -F com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
            
  • To configure MySQL to automatically start at bootup, you can:

    shell> sudo launchctl load -w com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
    
Note

When upgrading MySQL server, the launchd installation process will remove the old startup items that were installed with MySQL server 5.7.7 and below.

Also, upgrading will replace your existing launchd file of the same name.

Additional launchd related information:

  • The plist entries override my.cnf entries, because they are passed in as command line arguments. For additional information about passing in program options, see Section 5.2.3, “Specifying Program Options”.

  • The ProgramArguments section defines the command line options that are passed into the program, which is the mysqld binary in this case.

  • The default plist definition is written with less sophisticated use cases in mind. For more complicated setups, you may want to remove some of the arguments and instead rely on a MySQL configuration file, such as my.cnf.

  • If you edit the plist file, then uncheck the installer option when reinstalling or upgrading MySQL. Otherwise, your edited plist file will be overwritten, and all edits will be lost.

Because the default plist definition defines several ProgramArguments, you might remove most of these arguments and instead rely upon your my.cnf MySQL configuration file to define them. For example:


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
        </array>
</dict>
</plist>

   

In this case, the basedir, datadir, plugin_dir, log_error, and pid_file options were removed from the plist definition, and then you you might define them in my.cnf.

2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane

The MySQL Installation Package includes a MySQL preference pane that enables you to start, stop, and control automated startup during boot of your MySQL installation.

This preference pane is installed by default, and is listed under your system's System Preferences window.

Figure 2.50 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

MySQL Preference Pane: Location

To install the MySQL Preference Pane:

  1. Download the disk image (.dmg) file (the community version is available here) that contains the MySQL package installer. Double-click the file to mount the disk image and see its contents.

    Figure 2.51 MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

    MySQL Package Installer: DMG Contents

    Note

    Before MySQL 5.7.8, OS X packages included the deprecated startup items instead of launchd daemons, and the preference pane managed that instead of launchd.

  2. Go through the process of installing the MySQL server, as described in the documentation at Section 2.4.2, “Installing MySQL on OS X Using Native Packages”.

  3. Click Customize at the Installation Type step. The "Preference Pane" option is listed there and enabled by default; make sure it is not deselected.

    Figure 2.52 MySQL Installer on OS X: Customize

    MySQL Installer on OS X: Customize

  4. Complete the MySQL server installation process.

Note

The MySQL preference pane only starts and stops MySQL installation installed from the MySQL package installation that have been installed in the default location.

Once the MySQL preference pane has been installed, you can control your MySQL server instance using the preference pane. To use the preference pane, open the System Preferences... from the Apple menu. Select the MySQL preference pane by clicking the MySQL logo within the bottom section of the preference panes list.

Figure 2.53 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

MySQL Preference Pane: Location

Figure 2.54 MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

MySQL Preference Pane: Usage

The MySQL Preference Pane shows the current status of the MySQL server, showing stopped (in red) if the server is not running and running (in green) if the server has already been started. The preference pane also shows the current setting for whether the MySQL server has been set to start automatically.

  • To start the MySQL server using the preference pane:

    Click Start MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username and password of a user with administrator privileges to start the MySQL server.

  • To stop the MySQL server using the preference pane:

    Click Stop MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username and password of a user with administrator privileges to stop the MySQL server.

  • To automatically start the MySQL server when the system boots:

    Check the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server on Startup.

  • To disable automatic MySQL server startup when the system boots:

    Uncheck the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server on Startup.

You can close the System Preferences... window once you have completed your settings.

2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL. We recommend that you use one of the distributions from Oracle, for which several methods for installation are available:

As an alternative, you can use the package manager on your system to automatically download and install MySQL with packages from the native software repositories of your Linux distribution. These native packages are often several versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development milestone releases (DMRs), as these are not usually made available in the native repositories. For more information on using the native package installers, see Section 2.5.7, “Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories”.

Note

For many Linux installations, you will want to set up MySQL to be started automatically when your machine starts. Many of the native package installations perform this operation for you, but for source, binary and RPM solutions you may need to set this up separately. The required script, mysql.server, can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as /etc/init.d/mysql for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 5.3.3, “mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script”.

2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository

MySQL provides a Yum-style software repository for the following Linux distributions:

  • EL5, EL6, and EL7-based platforms (for example, the corresponding versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and CentOS)

  • Fedora 24 and 25

Currently, the MySQL Yum repository for the above-mentioned platforms provides RPM packages for installing the MySQL server, client, MySQL Workbench, MySQL Utilities, Connector/ODBC, and Connector/Python (not all packages are available for all the platforms; see Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum for details).

Before You Start

As a popular, open-source software, MySQL, in its original or re-packaged form, is widely installed on many systems from various sources, including different software download sites, software repositories, and so on. The following instructions assume that MySQL is not already installed on your system using a third-party-distributed RPM package; if that is not the case, follow the instructions given in Section 2.11.1.2, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” or Section 2.5.2, “Replacing a Third-Party Distribution of MySQL Using the MySQL Yum Repository”.

Steps for a Fresh Installation of MySQL

Follow the steps below to install the latest GA version of MySQL with the MySQL Yum repository:

  1. Adding the MySQL Yum Repository

    First, add the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list. This is a one-time operation, which can be performed by installing an RPM provided by MySQL. Follow these steps:

    1. Go to the Download MySQL Yum Repository page (http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/) in the MySQL Developer Zone.

    2. Select and download the release package for your platform.

    3. Install the downloaded release package with the following command (except for EL5-based systems), replacing platform-and-version-specific-package-name with the name of the downloaded RPM package:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall platform-and-version-specific-package-name.rpm
      

      For an EL6-based system, the command is in the form of:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall mysql57-community-release-el6-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For an EL7-based system:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall mysql57-community-release-el7-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For Fedora 24:

      shell> sudo dnf install mysql57-community-release-fc24-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For Fedora 25:

      shell> sudo dnf install mysql57-community-release-fc25-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      For an EL5-based system, use the following command instead:

      shell> sudo rpm -Uvh mysql57-community-release-el5-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
      

      The installation command adds the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list and downloads the GnuPG key to check the integrity of the software packages. See Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” for details on GnuPG key checking.

      You can check that the MySQL Yum repository has been successfully added by the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

      shell> yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.*-community.*"
      
    Note

    Once the MySQL Yum repository is enabled on your system, any system-wide update by the yum update command (or dnf upgrade for dnf-enabled systems) will upgrade MySQL packages on your system and also replace any native third-party packages, if Yum finds replacements for them in the MySQL Yum repository; see Section 2.11.1.2, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” and, for a discussion on some possible effects of that on your system, see Upgrading the Shared Client Libraries.

  2. Selecting a Release Series

    When using the MySQL Yum repository, the latest GA series (currently MySQL 5.7) is selected for installation by default. If this is what you want, you can skip to the next step, Installing MySQL.

    Within the MySQL Yum repository, different release series of the MySQL Community Server are hosted in different subrepositories. The subrepository for the latest GA series (currently MySQL 5.7) is enabled by default, and the subrepositories for all other series (for example, the MySQL 5.6 series) are disabled by default. Use this command to see all the subrepositories in the MySQL Yum repository, and see which of them are enabled or disabled (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum repolist all | grep mysql
    

    To install the latest release from the latest GA series, no configuration is needed. To install the latest release from a specific series other than the latest GA series, disable the subrepository for the latest GA series and enable the subrepository for the specific series before running the installation command. If your platform supports yum-config-manager, you can do that by issuing these commands, which disable the subrepository for the 5.7 series and enable the one for the 5.6 series:

    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --disable mysql57-community
    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --enable mysql56-community
    

    For dnf-enabled platforms:

    shell> sudo dnf config-manager --disable mysql57-community
    shell> sudo dnf config-manager --enable mysql56-community
    

    Besides using yum-config-manager or the dnf config-manager command, you can also select a release series by editing manually the /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo file. This is a typical entry for a release series' subrepository in the file:

    [mysql57-community]
    name=MySQL 5.7 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.7-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    

    Find the entry for the subrepository you want to configure, and edit the enabled option. Specify enabled=0 to disable a subrepository, or enabled=1 to enable a subrepository. For example, to install MySQL 5.6, make sure you have enabled=0 for the above subrepository entry for MySQL 5.7, and have enabled=1 for the entry for the 5.6 series:

    # Enable to use MySQL 5.6
    [mysql56-community]
    name=MySQL 5.6 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.6-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
    

    You should only enable subrepository for one release series at any time. When subrepositories for more than one release series are enabled, the latest series will be used by Yum.

    Verify that the correct subrepositories have been enabled and disabled by running the following command and checking its output (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum repolist enabled | grep mysql
    
  3. Installing MySQL

    Install MySQL by the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-server
    

    This installs the package for MySQL server (mysql-community-server) and also packages for the components required to run the server, including packages for the client (mysql-community-client), the common error messages and character sets for client and server (mysql-community-common), and the shared client libraries (mysql-community-libs).

  4. Starting the MySQL Server

    Start the MySQL server with the following command:

    shell> sudo service mysqld start
    Starting mysqld:[ OK ]
    

    You can check the status of the MySQL server with the following command:

    shell> sudo service mysqld status
    mysqld (pid 3066) is running.
    

At the initial start up of the server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

  • The server is initialized.

  • SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.

  • The validate_password plugin is installed and enabled.

  • A superuser account 'root'@'localhost is created. A password for the superuser is set and stored in the error log file. To reveal it, use the following command:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
    

    Change the root password as soon as possible by logging in with the generated, temporary password and set a custom password for the superuser account:

    shell> mysql -uroot -p 
    
    mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
    
    Note

    MySQL's validate_password plugin is installed by default. This will require that passwords contain at least one upper case letter, one lower case letter, one digit, and one special character, and that the total password length is at least 8 characters.

For more information on the postinstallation procedures, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

Compatibility Information for EL7-based platforms: The following RPM packages from the native software repositories of the platforms are incompatible with the package from the MySQL Yum repository that installs the MySQL server. Once you have installed MySQL using the MySQL Yum repository, you will not be able to install these packages (and vice versa).

  • akonadi-mysql

Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum

You can use Yum to install and manage individual components of MySQL. Some of these components are hosted in sub-repositories of the MySQL Yum repository: for example, the MySQL Connectors are to be found in the MySQL Connectors Community sub-repository, and the MySQL Workbench in MySQL Tools Community. You can use the following command to list the packages for all the MySQL components available for your platform from the MySQL Yum repository (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

shell> sudo yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo='mysql*-community*' list available

Install any packages of your choice with the following command, replacing package-name with name of the package (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

shell> sudo yum install package-name

For example, to install MySQL Workbench on Fedora 24:

shell> sudo dnf install mysql-workbench-community

To install the shared client libraries (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-libs

Updating MySQL with Yum

Besides installation, you can also perform updates for MySQL products and components using the MySQL Yum repository. See Section 2.11.1.2, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

2.5.2 Replacing a Third-Party Distribution of MySQL Using the MySQL Yum Repository

For supported Yum-based platforms (see Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository”, for a list), you can replace a third-party distribution of MySQL with the latest GA release (from the MySQL 5.7 series currently) from the MySQL Yum repository. According to how your third-party distribution of MySQL was installed, there are different steps to follow:

Replacing a Native Third-Party Distribution of MySQL

If you have installed a third-party distribution of MySQL from a native software repository (that is, a software repository provided by your own Linux distribution), follow these steps:

  1. Backing Up Your Database

    To avoid loss of data, always back up your database before trying to replace your MySQL installation using the MySQL Yum repository. See Chapter 8, Backup and Recovery, on how to back up your database.

  2. Adding the MySQL Yum Repository

    Add the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list by following the instructions given in Adding the MySQL Yum Repository.

  3. Replacing the Native Third-Party Distribution by a Yum Update or a DNF Upgrade

    By design, the MySQL Yum repository will replace your native, third-party MySQL with the latest GA release (from the MySQL 5.7 series currently) from the MySQL Yum repository when you perform a yum update command (or dnf upgrade for dnf-enabled systems) on the system, or a yum update mysql-server (or dnf upgrade mysql-server for dnf-enabled systems).

After updating MySQL using the Yum repository, applications compiled with older versions of the shared client libraries should continue to work. However, if you want to recompile applications and dynamically link them with the updated libraries, see Upgrading the Shared Client Libraries, for some special considerations.

Replacing a Nonnative Third-Party Distribution of MySQL

If you have installed a third-party distribution of MySQL from a nonnative software repository (that is, a software repository not provided by your own Linux distribution), follow these steps:

  1. Backing Up Your Database

    To avoid loss of data, always back up your database before trying to replace your MySQL installation using the MySQL Yum repository. See Chapter 8, Backup and Recovery, on how to back up your database.

  2. Stopping Yum from Receiving MySQL Packages from Third-Party, Nonnative Repositories

    Before you can use the MySQL Yum repository for installing MySQL, you must stop your system from receiving MySQL packages from any third-party, nonnative Yum repositories.

    For example, if you have installed MariaDB using their own software repository, get a list of the installed MariaDB packages using the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum list installed mariadb\*
    MariaDB-common.i686                      10.0.4-1                       @mariadb
    MariaDB-compat.i686                      10.0.4-1                       @mariadb
    MariaDB-server.i686                      10.0.4-1                       @mariadb
    

    From the command output, we can identify the installed packages (MariaDB-common, MariaDB-compat, and MariaDB-server) and the source of them (a nonnative software repository named mariadb).

    As another example, if you have installed Percona using their own software repository, get a list of the installed Percona packages using the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum list installed Percona\*
    Percona-Server-client-55.i686     5.5.39-rel36.0.el6          @percona-release-i386
    Percona-Server-server-55.i686     5.5.39-rel36.0.el6          @percona-release-i386
    Percona-Server-shared-55.i686     5.5.39-rel36.0.el6          @percona-release-i386
    percona-release.noarch            0.1-3                       @/percona-release-0.1-3.noarch
    

    From the command output, we can identify the installed packages (Percona-Server-client, Percona-Server-server, Percona-Server-shared, and percona-release.noarch) and the source of them (a nonnative software repository named percona-release).

    If you are not sure which third-party MySQL fork you have installed, this command should reveal it and list the RPM packages installed for it, as well as the third-party repository that supplies the packages (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> yum --disablerepo=\* provides mysql\*
    

    The next step is to stop Yum from receiving packages from the nonnative repository. If the yum-config-manager utility is supported on your platform, you can, for example, use this command for stopping delivery from MariaDB (on dnf-enabled systems, use the dnf config-manager command instead of yum-config-manager):

    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --disable mariadb
    

    Use this command for stopping delivery from Percona (on dnf-enabled systems, use the dnf config-manager command instead of yum-config-manager):

    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --disable percona-release
    

    You can perform the same task by removing the entry for the software repository existing in one of the repository files under the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. This is how the entry typically looks for MariaDB:

    [mariadb] name = MariaDB
     baseurl = [base URL for repository]
     gpgkey = [URL for GPG key]
     gpgcheck =1
    

    The entry is usually found in the file /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo for MariaDB—delete the file, or remove entry from it (or from the file in which you find the entry).

    Note

    This step is not necessary for an installation that was configured with a Yum repository release package (like Percona) if you are going to remove the release package (percona-release.noarch for Percona), as shown in the uninstall command for Percona in Step 3 below.

  3. Uninstalling the Nonnative Third-Party MySQL Distribution of MySQL

    The nonnative third-party MySQL distribution must first be uninstalled before you can use the MySQL Yum repository to install MySQL. For the MariaDB packages found in Step 2 above, uninstall them with the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> sudo yum remove MariaDB-common MariaDB-compat MariaDB-server
    

    For the Percona packages we found in Step 2 above (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

    shell> sudo yum remove Percona-Server-client-55 Percona-Server-server-55 \
      Percona-Server-shared-55.i686 percona-release
    
  4. Installing MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository

    Then, install MySQL with the MySQL Yum repository by following the instructions given in Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository”: .

    Important

    If you have chosen to replace your third-party MySQL distribution with a newer version of MySQL from the MySQL Yum repository, remember to run mysql_upgrade after the server starts, to check and possibly resolve any incompatibilities between the old data and the upgraded software. mysql_upgrade also performs other functions; see Section 5.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables” for details.

    For EL7-based platforms: See Compatibility Information for EL7-based platforms.

2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository

The MySQL APT repository provides deb packages for installing and managing the MySQL server, client, and other components on the following Linux platforms: :

  • Debian 7.x (wheezy)

  • Debian 8.x (jessie)

  • Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin)

  • Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr)

  • Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus)

Instructions for using the MySQL APT Repository are available in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL APT Repository.

2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository

The MySQL SLES repository provides RPM packages for installing and managing the MySQL server, client, and other components on SUSE Enterprise Linux Server.

Instructions for using the MySQL SLES repository are available in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL SLES Repository.

Note

The MySQL SLES repository is now in development release. We encourage you to try it and provide us with feedback. Please report any bugs or inconsistencies you observe to our Bugs Database.

2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle

The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux distributions is by using the RPM packages provided by Oracle. There are two sources for obtaining them, for the Community Edition of MySQL:

Note

RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the installation instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

If you have such a third-party distribution of MySQL running on your system and now want to migrate to Oracle's distribution using the RPM packages downloaded from the MySQL Developer Zone, see Compatibility with RPM Packages from Other Vendors below. The preferred method of migration, however, is to use the MySQL Yum repository or MySQL SLES repository.

RPM packages for MySQL are listed in the following tables:

Table 2.6 RPM Packages for MySQL Community Edition

Package NameSummary
mysql-community-serverDatabase server and related tools
mysql-community-clientMySQL client applications and tools
mysql-community-commonCommon files for server and client libraries
mysql-community-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-libs-compatShared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations
mysql-community-embeddedMySQL embedded library
mysql-community-embedded-develDevelopment header files and libraries for MySQL as an embeddable library
mysql-community-test Test suite for the MySQL server

Table 2.7 RPM Packages for the MySQL Enterprise Edition

Package NameSummary
mysql-commercial-serverDatabase server and related tools
mysql-commercial-clientMySQL client applications and tools
mysql-commercial-commonCommon files for server and client libraries
mysql-commercial-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-commercial-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-commercial-libs-compatShared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations
mysql-commercial-embeddedMySQL embedded library
mysql-commercial-embedded-develDevelopment header files and libraries for MySQL as an embeddable library
mysql-commercial-test Test suite for the MySQL server

The full names for the RPMs have the following syntax:

packagename-version-distribution-arch.rpm

The distribution and arch values indicate the Linux distribution and the processor type for which the package was built. See the table below for lists of the distribution identifiers:

Table 2.8 MySQL Linux RPM Package Distribution Identifiers

distribution ValueIntended Use
el5, el6, el7Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5, 6, or 7
fc24, fc25Fedora 24 or 25
sles12SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, mysql-community-server), use the following command:

shell> rpm -qpl mysql-community-server-version-distribution-arch.rpm

The discussion in the rest of this section applies only to an installation process using the RPM packages directly downloaded from Oracle, instead of through a MySQL repository.

Dependency relationships exist among some of the packages. If you plan to install many of the packages, you may wish to download the RPM bundle tar file instead, which contains all the RPM packages listed above, so that you need not download them separately.

In most cases, you need to install the mysql-community-server, mysql-community-client, mysql-community-libs, mysql-community-common, and mysql-community-libs-compat packages to get a functional, standard MySQL installation. To perform such a standard, minimal installation, go to the folder that contains all those packages (and, preferably, no other RPM packages with similar names), and issue the following command for platforms other than Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-* 

Replace yum with zypper for SLES systems, and with dnf for dnf-enabled systems (like Fedora 24 and later).

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5 systems, there is an extra package (mysql-version-el5-arch.rpm) to be installed; use the following command:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-* mysql-5.* 

While it is much preferable to use a high-level package management tool like yum to install the packages, users who prefer direct rpm commands can replace the yum install command with the rpm -Uvh command; however, using rpm -Uvh instead makes the installation process more prone to failure, due to potential dependency issues the installation process might run into.

To install only the client programs, you can skip mysql-community-server in your list of packages to install; issue the following command for platforms other than Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{client,common,libs}-* 

Replace yum with zypper for SLES systems, and with dnf for dnf-enabled systems (like Fedora 24 and later).

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5 systems:

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-{client,common,libs}-* mysql-5.* 

A standard installation of MySQL using the RPM packages result in files and resources created under the system directories, shown in the following table.

Table 2.9 MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM Packages from the MySQL Developer Zone

Files or ResourcesLocation
Client programs and scripts/usr/bin
mysqld server/usr/sbin
Configuration file/etc/my.cnf
Data directory/var/lib/mysql
Error log file

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: /var/log/mysqld.log

For SLES: /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log

Value of secure_file_priv/var/lib/mysql-files
System V init script

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: /etc/init.d/mysqld

For SLES: /etc/init.d/mysql

Systemd service

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS or Fedora platforms: mysqld

For SLES: mysql

Pid file /var/run/mysql/mysqld.pid
Socket/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Keyring directory/var/lib/mysql-keyring
Unix manual pages/usr/share/man
Include (header) files/usr/include/mysql
Libraries/usr/lib/mysql
Miscellaneous support files (for example, error messages, and character set files)/usr/share/mysql

The installation also creates a user named mysql and a group named mysql on the system.

Note

Installation of previous versions of MySQL using older packages might have created a configuration file named /usr/my.cnf. It is highly recommended that you examine the contents of the file and migrate the desired settings inside to the file /etc/my.cnf file, then remove /usr/my.cnf.

MySQL is NOT automatically started at the end of the installation process. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora systems, use the following command to start MySQL:

shell> sudo service mysqld start

For SLES systems, the command is the same, but the service name is different:

shell> sudo service mysql start

If the operating system is systemd enabled, standard service commands such as stop, start, status and restart should be used to manage the MySQL server service. The mysqld service is enabled by default, and it starts at system reboot. Notice that certain things might work differently on systemd platforms: for example, changing the location of the data directory might cause issues. See Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd” for additional information.

At the initial start up of the server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

  • The server is initialized.

  • An SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.

  • The validate_password plugin is installed and enabled.

  • A superuser account 'root'@'localhost' is created. A password for the superuser is set and stored in the error log file. To reveal it, use the following command for RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora systems:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
    

    Use the following command for SLES systems:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log
    

    The next step is to log in with the generated, temporary password and set a custom password for the superuser account:

shell> mysql -uroot -p 
mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
Note

MySQL's validate_password plugin is installed by default. This will require that passwords contain at least one upper case letter, one lower case letter, one digit, and one special character, and that the total password length is at least 8 characters.

If something goes wrong during installation, you might find debug information in the error log file /var/log/mysqld.log.

For some Linux distributions, it might be necessary to increase the limit on number of file descriptors available to mysqld. See Section B.5.2.18, “File Not Found and Similar Errors”

Compatibility with RPM Packages from Other Vendors.  If you have installed packages for MySQL from your Linux distribution's local software repository, it is much preferable to install the new, directly-downloaded packages from Oracle using the package management system of your platform (yum, dnf, or zypper), as described above. The command replaces old packages with new ones to ensure compatibility of old applications with the new installation; for example, the old mysql-libs package is replaced with the mysql-community-libs-compat package, which provides a replacement-compatible client library for applications that were using your older MySQL installation. If there was an older version of mysql-community-libs-compat on the system, it also gets replaced.

If you have installed third-party packages for MySQL that are NOT from your Linux distribution's local software repository (for example, packages directly downloaded from a vendor other than Oracle), you should uninstall all those packages before installing the new, directly-downloaded packages from Oracle. This is because conflicts may arise between those vendor's RPM packages and Oracle's: for example, a vendor's convention about which files belong with the server and which belong with the client library may differ from that used for Oracle packages. Attempts to install an Oracle RPM may then result in messages saying that files in the RPM to be installed conflict with files from an installed package.

Installing Client Libraries from Multiple MySQL Versions.  It is possible to install multiple client library versions, such as for the case that you want to maintain compatibility with older applications linked against previous libraries. To install an older client library, use the --oldpackage option with rpm. For example, to install mysql-community-libs-5.5 on an EL6 system that has libmysqlclient.20 from MySQL 5.7, use a command like this:

shell> rpm --oldpackage -ivh mysql-community-libs-5.5.50-2.el6.x86_64.rpm

Debug Package.  A special variant of MySQL Server compiled with the debug package has been included in the server RPM packages. It performs debugging and memory allocation checks and produces a trace file when the server is running. To use that debug version, start MySQL with /usr/sbin/mysqld-debug, instead of starting it as a service or with /usr/sbin/mysqld. See Section 27.5.3, “The DBUG Package” for the debug options you can use.

Rebuilding RPMs from source SRPMs.  Source code SRPM packages for MySQL are available for download. They can be used as-is to rebuild the MySQL RPMs with the standard rpmbuild tool chain.

root passwords for pre-GA releases.  For MySQL 5.7.4 and 5.7.5, the initial random root password is written to the .mysql_secret file in the directory named by the HOME environment variable. When trying to access the file, bear in mind that depending on operating system, using a command such as sudo may cause the value of HOME to refer to the home directory of the root system user . .mysql_secret is created with mode 600 to be accessible only to the system user for whom it is created. Before MySQL 5.7.4, the accounts (including root) created in the MySQL grant tables for an RPM installation initially have no passwords; after starting the server, you should assign passwords to them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”."

2.5.6 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle

Oracle provides Debian packages for installing MySQL on Debian or Debian-like Linux systems. The packages are available through two different channels:

  • The MySQL APT Repository. This is the preferred method for installing MySQL on Debian-like systems, as it provides a simple and convenient way to install and update MySQL products. For details, see Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository”.

  • The MySQL Developer Zone's Download Area. For details, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. The following are some information on the Debian packages available there and the instructions for installing them:

    • Various Debian packages are provided in the MySQL Developer Zone for installing different components of MySQL on different Debian or Ubuntu platforms (currently, Debian 7 and 8, and Ubuntu 12, 14, and 16 are supported). The preferred method is to use the tarball bundle, which contains the packages needed for a basic setup of MySQL. The tarball bundles have names in the format of mysql-server_MVER-DVER_CPU.deb-bundle.tar. MVER is the MySQL version and DVER is the Linux distribution version. The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the package is built, as shown in the following table:

      Table 2.10 MySQL Debian and Ubuntu Installation Packages CPU Identifiers

      CPU ValueIntended Processor Type or Family
      i386Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
      amd6464-bit x86 processor

    • After downloading the tarball, unpack it with the following command:

      shell> tar -xvf mysql-server_MVER-DVER_CPU.deb-bundle.tar
      
    • You may need to install the libaio library if it is not already present on your system:

      shell> sudo apt-get install libaio1
      
    • Preconfigure the MySQL server package with the following command:

      shell> sudo dpkg-preconfigure mysql-community-server_*.deb
      

      You will be asked to provide a password for the root user for your MySQL installation. You might also be asked other questions regarding the installation.

      Important

      Make sure you remember the root password you set. Users who want to set a password later can leave the password field blank in the dialogue box and just press OK; in that case, root access to the server is authenticated using the MySQL Socket Peer-Credential Authentication Plugin for connections using a Unix socket file. You can set the root password later using mysql_secure_installation.

    • For a basic installation of the MySQL server, install the database common files package, the client package, the client metapackage, the server package, and the server metapackage (in that order); you can do that with a single command:

      shell> sudo dpkg -i mysql-{common,community-client,client,community-server,server}_*.deb
      

      If you are being warned of unmet dependencies by dpkg, you can fix them using apt-get:

      sudo apt-get -f install

      Here are where the files are installed on the system:

      • All configuration files (like my.cnf) are under /etc/mysql

      • All binaries, libraries, headers, etc., are under /usr/bin and /usr/sbin

      • The data directory is under /var/lib/mysql

Note

Debian distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories

Many Linux distributions include a version of the MySQL server, client tools, and development components in their native software repositories and can be installed with the platforms' standard package management systems. This section provides basic instructions for installing MySQL using those package management systems.

Important

Native packages are often several versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development milestone releases (DMRs), as these are not usually made available in the native repositories. Before proceeding, we recommend that you check out the other installation options described in Section 2.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux”.

Distribution specific instructions are shown below:

  • Red Hat Linux, Fedora, CentOS

    Note

    For a number of Linux distributions, you can install MySQL using the MySQL Yum repository instead of the platform's native software repository. See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

    For Red Hat and similar distributions, the MySQL distribution is divided into a number of separate packages, mysql for the client tools, mysql-server for the server and associated tools, and mysql-libs for the libraries. The libraries are required if you want to provide connectivity from different languages and environments such as Perl, Python and others.

    To install, use the yum command to specify the packages that you want to install. For example:

    root-shell> yum install mysql mysql-server mysql-libs mysql-server
    Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
    Setting up Install Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    ================================================================================
     Package               Arch          Version               Repository      Size
    ================================================================================
    Installing:
     mysql                 x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        889 k
     mysql-libs            x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        1.2 M
     mysql-server          x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        8.1 M
    Installing for dependencies:
     perl-DBD-MySQL        x86_64        4.017-1.fc13          updates        136 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    ================================================================================
    Install       4 Package(s)
    Upgrade       0 Package(s)
    
    Total download size: 10 M
    Installed size: 30 M
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
    Processing delta metadata
    Package(s) data still to download: 10 M
    (1/4): mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm                    | 889 kB     00:04
    (2/4): mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm               | 1.2 MB     00:06
    (3/4): mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm             | 8.1 MB     00:40
    (4/4): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64.rpm            | 136 kB     00:00
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total                                           201 kB/s |  10 MB     00:52
    Running rpm_check_debug
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Installing     : mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                          1/4
      Installing     : mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                               2/4
      Installing     : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64                       3/4
      Installing     : mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                        4/4
    
    Installed:
      mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13            mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13
      mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13
    
    Dependency Installed:
      perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13
    
    Complete!
    

    MySQL and the MySQL server should now be installed. A sample configuration file is installed into /etc/my.cnf. An init script, to start and stop the server, will have been installed into /etc/init.d/mysqld. To start the MySQL server use service:

    root-shell> service mysqld start
    

    To enable the server to be started and stopped automatically during boot, use chkconfig:

    root-shell> chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
    

    Which enables the MySQL server to be started (and stopped) automatically at the specified the run levels.

    The database tables will have been automatically created for you, if they do not already exist. You should, however, run mysql_secure_installation to set the root passwords on your server.

  • Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu

    Note

    For Debian 7 and 8, and Ubuntu 12, 14, and 15, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL APT Repository instead of the platform's native software repository. See Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository” for details.

    On Debian and related distributions, there are two packages for MySQL in their software repositories, mysql-client and mysql-server, for the client and server components respectively. You should specify an explicit version, for example mysql-client-5.1, to ensure that you install the version of MySQL that you want.

    To download and install, including any dependencies, use the apt-get command, specifying the packages that you want to install.

    Note

    Before installing, make sure that you update your apt-get index files to ensure you are downloading the latest available version.

    A sample installation of the MySQL packages might look like this (some sections trimmed for clarity):

    root-shell> apt-get install mysql-client-5.1 mysql-server-5.1
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree
    Reading state information... Done
    The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
      linux-headers-2.6.28-11 linux-headers-2.6.28-11-generic
    Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
    The following extra packages will be installed:
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-common postfix
    Suggested packages:
      dbishell libipc-sharedcache-perl tinyca procmail postfix-mysql postfix-pgsql
      postfix-ldap postfix-pcre sasl2-bin resolvconf postfix-cdb
    The following NEW packages will be installed
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-client-5.1 mysql-common mysql-server-5.1 postfix
    0 upgraded, 13 newly installed, 0 to remove and 182 not upgraded.
    Need to get 1907kB/25.3MB of archives.
    After this operation, 59.5MB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
    Get: 1 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main mysql-common 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [63.6kB]
    Get: 2 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main libmysqlclient15off 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [1843kB]
    Fetched 1907kB in 9s (205kB/s)
    Preconfiguring packages ...
    Selecting previously deselected package mysql-common.
    (Reading database ... 121260 files and directories currently installed.)
    ...
    Processing 1 added doc-base file(s)...
    Registering documents with scrollkeeper...
    Setting up libnet-daemon-perl (0.43-1) ...
    Setting up libplrpc-perl (0.2020-1) ...
    Setting up libdbi-perl (1.607-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient15off (5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5) ...
    
    Setting up libdbd-mysql-perl (4.008-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient16 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-client-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-server-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
     * Stopping MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
    2013-09-24T13:03:09.048353Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: 5.7.18 started; log sequence number 1566036
    2013-09-24T13:03:10.057269Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
    2013-09-24T13:03:10.857032Z 0 [Note] InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 1566036
     * Starting MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
     * Checking for corrupt, not cleanly closed and upgrade needing tables.
    ...
    Processing triggers for libc6 ...
    ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
    
    Note

    The apt-get command will install a number of packages, including the MySQL server, in order to provide the typical tools and application environment. This can mean that you install a large number of packages in addition to the main MySQL package.

    During installation, the initial database will be created, and you will be prompted for the MySQL root password (and confirmation). A configuration file will have been created in /etc/mysql/my.cnf. An init script will have been created in /etc/init.d/mysql.

    The server will already be started. You can manually start and stop the server using:

    root-shell> service mysql [start|stop]
    

    The service will automatically be added to the 2, 3 and 4 run levels, with stop scripts in the single, shutdown and restart levels.

2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with docker

The docker deployment framework supports easy installation and configuration of MySQL servers. For instructions, see https://hub.docker.com/r/mysql/mysql-server/. This page also provides extensive documentation about using MySQL under docker.

2.5.9 Installing MySQL on Linux with juju

The juju deployment framework supports easy installation and configuration of MySQL servers. For instructions, see https://jujucharms.com/mysql/.

2.5.10 Managing MySQL Server with systemd

As of MySQL 5.7.6, if you install MySQL using an RPM distribution on the following Linux platforms, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7; Oracle Linux 7; CentOS 7

  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

  • Fedora 24 and 25

To obtain systemd support if you install from a source distribution, configure the distribution using the -DWITH_SYSTEMD=1 CMake option. See Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

The following discussion covers these topics:

Overview of systemd

systemd provides automatic server startup and shutdown. It also enables manual server management using the systemctl command. For example:

systemctl {start|stop|restart|status} mysqld

Alternatively, use the service command (with the arguments reversed), which is compatible with System V systems:

service mysqld {start|stop|restart|status}

For the systemctl or service commands, if the MySQL service name is not mysqld, use the appropriate name (for example, mysql on SLES systems).

Support for systemd includes these files:

  • mysqld.service: systemd service unit configuration, with details about the mysqld service.

  • mysqld@.service: Like mysqld.service, but used for managing multiple MySQL instances.

  • mysqld.tmpfiles.d: File containing information to support the tmpfiles feature. This file is installed under the name mysql.conf.

  • mysqld_pre_systemd: Support script for the unit file. This script assists in creating the error log file only if its location matches the pattern /var/log/mysql*.log. In other cases, the error log directory must be writable or the error log must be present and writable for the user running the mysqld process.

On platforms for which systemd support is installed, scripts such as mysqld_safe and the System V initialization script are not installed because they are unnecessary. For example, mysqld_safe can handle server restarts, but systemd provides the same capability, and does so in a manner consistent with management of other services rather than using an application-specific program.

As of MySQL 5.7.13, on platforms for which systemd support is installed, systemd has the capability of managing multiple MySQL instances. For details, see Configuring Multiple MySQL Instances Using systemd. Consequently, mysqld_multi and mysqld_multi.server are not installed because they are unnecessary.

Configuring MySQL Using systemd

To add or change systemd options for MySQL, these methods are available:

  • Use a localized systemd configuration file.

  • Arrange for systemd to set environment variables for the MySQL server process.

  • Set the MYSQLD_OPTS systemd variable.

To use a localized systemd configuration file, create the /etc/systemd/system/mysqld.service.d directory if it does not exist. In that directory, create a file that contains a [Service] section listing the desired settings. For example:

[Service]
LimitNOFILE=max_open_files
PIDFile=/path/to/pid/file
Nice=nice_level
LimitCore=core_file_limit
Environment="LD_PRELOAD=/path/to/malloc/library"
Environment="TZ=time_zone_setting"

The discussion here uses override.conf as the name of this file. Newer versions of systemd support the following command, which opens an editor and permits you to edit the file:

systemctl edit mysqld

Whenever you create or change override.conf, reload the systemd configuration, then tell systemd to restart the MySQL service:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart mysqld

Support for configuration using override.conf was added in MySQL 5.7.7.

With systemd, the override.conf configuration method must be used for certain parameters, rather than settings in a [mysqld_safe] or [mysqld] group in a MySQL option file:

  • For some parameters, override.conf must be used because systemd itself must know their values and it cannot read MySQL option files to get them.

  • Parameters that specify values otherwise settable only using options known to mysqld_safe must be specified using systemd because there is no corresponding mysqld parameter.

For additional information about using systemd rather than mysqld_safe, see Migrating from mysqld_safe to systemd.

You can set the following parameters in override.conf:

  • To specify the process ID file:

    • As of MySQL 5.7.10: Use override.conf and change both PIDFile and ExecStart to name the PID file path name. Any setting of the process ID file in MySQL option files will be ignored.

    • Before MySQL 5.7.10: Use PIDFile in override.conf rather than the --pid-file option for mysqld_safe or mysqld. systemd must know the PID file location so that it can restart or stop the server. If the PID file value is specified in a MySQL option file, the value must match the PIDFile value or MySQL startup may fail.

  • To set the number of file descriptors available to the MySQL server, use LimitNOFILE in override.conf rather than the --open-files-limit option for mysqld_safe or mysqld.

  • To set the maximum core file size, use LimitCore in override.conf rather than the --core-file-size option for mysqld_safe.

  • To set the scheduling priority for the MySQL server, use Nice in override.conf rather than the --nice option for mysqld_safe.

Some MySQL parameters are configured using environment variables:

  • LD_PRELOAD: Set this variable if the MySQL server should use a specific memory-allocation library.

  • TZ: Set this variable to specify the default time zone for the server.

There are multiple ways to specify the value of environment values that should be in effect for the MySQL server process managed by systemd:

  • Use Environment lines in the override.conf file. For the syntax, see the example in the preceding discussion that describes how to use this file.

  • Specify the values in the /etc/sysconfig/mysql file (create the file if it does not exist). Assign values using the following syntax:

    LD_PRELOAD=/path/to/malloc/library
    TZ=time_zone_setting
    

    After modifying /etc/sysconfig/mysql, restart the server to make the changes effective:

    systemctl restart mysqld
    

To specify options for mysqld without modifying systemd configuration files directly, set or unset the MYSQLD_OPTS systemd variable. For example:

systemctl set-environment MYSQLD_OPTS="--general_log=1"
systemctl unset-environment MYSQLD_OPTS

After modifying the systemd environment, restart the server to make the changes effective:

systemctl restart mysqld

MYSQLD_OPTS can also be set in the /etc/sysconfig/mysql file.

Configuring Multiple MySQL Instances Using systemd

As of MySQL 5.7.13, on platforms for which systemd support is installed, systemd has the capability of managing multiple MySQL instances. Consequently, mysqld_multi and mysqld_multi.server are not installed because they are unnecessary.

To use multiple-instance capability, modify my.cnf to include configuration of key options for each instance. For example, to manage two instances named replica01 and replica02, add something like this to the file:

[mysqld@replica01]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql-replica01
socket=/var/lib/mysql-replica01/mysql.sock
port=3307
log-error=/var/log/mysqld-replica01.log

[mysqld@replica02]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql-replica02
socket=/var/lib/mysql-replica02/mysql.sock
port=3308
log-error=/var/log/mysqld-replica02.log

The replica names shown here use @ as the delimiter because that is the only delimiter supported by systemd.

Instances then are managed by normal systemd commands, such as:

systemctl start mysqld@replica01
systemctl start mysqld@replica02

To enable instances to run at boot time, do this:

systemctl enable mysqld@replica01
systemctl enable mysqld@replica02

Use of wildcards is also supported. For example, this command displays the status of all replica instances:

systemctl status 'mysqld@replica*'

For management of multiple MySQL instances on the same machine, systemd automatically uses a different unit file (mysqld@.service rather than mysqld.service). In that unit file, %I and %i reference the parameter passed in after the @ marker and are used to manage the specific instance. For a command such as this:

systemctl start mysqld@mysql1

systemd starts the server using a command such as this:

mysqld --defaults-group-suffix=@%I ...

The result is that the [server], [mysqld], and [mysqld@mysql1] option groups are read and used for that instance of the service.

Migrating from mysqld_safe to systemd

Because mysqld_safe is not installed when systemd is used, options previously specified for that program (for example, in an [mysqld_safe] option group) must be specified another way:

  • Some mysqld_safe options are also understood by mysqld and can be moved from the [mysqld_safe] option group to the [mysqld] group. This does not include --pid-file or --open-files-limit. To specify those options, use the override.conf systemd file, described previously.

  • For some mysqld_safe options, there are similar mysqld options. For example, the mysqld_safe option for enabling syslog logging is --syslog. For mysqld, enable the log_syslog system variable instead. For details, see Section 6.4.2, “The Error Log”.

  • mysqld_safe options not understood by mysqld can be specified in override.conf or environment variables. For example, with mysqld_safe, if the server should use a specific memory allocation library, this is specified using the --malloc-lib option. For installations that manage the server with systemd, arrange to set the LD_PRELOAD environment variable instead, as described previously.

2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL, covered in Section 2.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux”. One of the methods, covered in this section, is installing from Oracle's Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). You can find information about Oracle Linux and ULN under http://linux.oracle.com/.

To use ULN, you need to obtain a ULN login and register the machine used for installation with ULN. This is described in detail in the ULN FAQ. The page also describes how to install and update packages.The MySQL packages are in the MySQL for Oracle Linux 6 and MySQL for Oracle Linux 7 channels for your system architecture on ULN.

Note

At the time of this writing, ULN provides MySQL 5.7 for Oracle Linux 6 and Oracle Linux 7.

Once MySQL has been installed using ULN, you can find information on starting and stopping the server, and more, in this section, particularly under Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.

If you're updating an existing MySQL installation to an installation using ULN, the recommended procedure is to export your data using mysqldump, remove the existing installation, install MySQL from ULN, and load the exported data into your freshly installed MySQL.

If the existing MySQL installation you're upgrading from is from a previous release series (prior to MySQL 5.7), make sure to read the section on upgrading MySQL, Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”.

2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris

MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris is available in a number of different formats.

To obtain a binary MySQL distribution for Solaris in tarball or PKG format, http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.7.html.

Additional notes to be aware of when installing and using MySQL on Solaris:

  • If you want to use MySQL with the mysql user and group, use the groupadd and useradd commands:

    groupadd mysql
    useradd -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
    
  • If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked, as the Solaris tar cannot handle long file names. This means that you may see errors when you try to unpack MySQL.

    If this occurs, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. In Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris gtar is normally located in /usr/sfw/bin/gtar, but may not be included in the default path definition.

  • When using Solaris 10 for x86_64, you should mount any file systems on which you intend to store InnoDB files with the forcedirectio option. (By default mounting is done without this option.) Failing to do so will cause a significant drop in performance when using the InnoDB storage engine on this platform.

  • If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to /etc/init.d and create a symbolic link to it named /etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server.

  • If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you should see this error in the MySQL log:

    Error in accept: Protocol error
    

    You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this.

  • To configure the generation of core files on Solaris you should use the coreadm command. Because of the security implications of generating a core on a setuid() application, by default, Solaris does not support core files on setuid() programs. However, you can modify this behavior using coreadm. If you enable setuid() core files for the current user, they will be generated using the mode 600 and owned by the superuser.

2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG

You can install MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris using a binary package using the native Solaris PKG format instead of the binary tarball distribution.

To use this package, download the corresponding mysql-VERSION-solaris11-PLATFORM.pkg.gz file, then uncompress it. For example:

shell> gunzip mysql-5.7.18-solaris11-x86_64.pkg.gz

To install a new package, use pkgadd and follow the onscreen prompts. You must have root privileges to perform this operation:

shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.7.18-solaris11-x86_64.pkg

The following packages are available:
  1  mysql     MySQL Community Server (GPL)
               (i86pc) 5.7.18

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

The PKG installer installs all of the files and tools needed, and then initializes your database if one does not exist. To complete the installation, you should set the root password for MySQL as provided in the instructions at the end of the installation. Alternatively, you can run the mysql_secure_installation script that comes with the installation.

By default, the PKG package installs MySQL under the root path /opt/mysql. You can change only the installation root path when using pkgadd, which can be used to install MySQL in a different Solaris zone. If you need to install in a specific directory, use a binary tar file distribution.

The pkg installer copies a suitable startup script for MySQL into /etc/init.d/mysql. To enable MySQL to startup and shutdown automatically, you should create a link between this file and the init script directories. For example, to ensure safe startup and shutdown of MySQL you could use the following commands to add the right links:

shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc3.d/S91mysql
shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc0.d/K02mysql

To remove MySQL, the installed package name is mysql. You can use this in combination with the pkgrm command to remove the installation.

To upgrade when using the Solaris package file format, you must remove the existing installation before installing the updated package. Removal of the package does not delete the existing database information, only the server, binaries and support files. The typical upgrade sequence is therefore:

shell> mysqladmin shutdown
shell> pkgrm mysql
shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.7.18-solaris11-x86_64.pkg
shell> mysqld_safe &
shell> mysql_upgrade

You should check the notes in Section 2.11, “Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL” before performing any upgrade.

2.7.2 Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS

OpenSolaris includes standard packages for MySQL in the core repository. The MySQL packages are based on a specific release of MySQL and updated periodically. For the latest release you must use either the native Solaris PKG, tar, or source installations. The native OpenSolaris packages include SMF files so that you can easily control your MySQL installation, including automatic startup and recovery, using the native service management tools.

To install MySQL on OpenSolaris, use the pkg command. You will need to be logged in as root, or use the pfexec tool, as shown in the example below:

shell> pfexec pkg install SUNWmysql57

The package set installs three individual packages, SUNWmysql57lib, which contains the MySQL client libraries; SUNWmysql57r which contains the root components, including SMF and configuration files; and SUNWmysql57u which contains the scripts, binary tools and other files. You can install these packages individually if you only need the corresponding components.

The MySQL files are installed into /usr/mysql which symbolic links for the sub directories (bin, lib, etc.) to a version specific directory. For MySQL 5.7, the full installation is located in /usr/mysql/5.7. The default data directory is /var/mysql/5.7/data. The configuration file is installed in /etc/mysql/5.7/my.cnf. This layout permits multiple versions of MySQL to be installed, without overwriting the data and binaries from other versions.

Once installed, you must initialize the data directory (see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”), and use the mysql_secure_installation to secure your installation.

Using SMF to manage your MySQL installation

Once installed, you can start and stop your MySQL server using the installed SMF configuration. The service name is mysql, or if you have multiple versions installed, you should use the full version name, for example mysql:version_57. To start and enable MySQL to be started at boot time:

shell> svcadm enable mysql

To view the SMF logs, use this command:

shell> svcadm enable svc:/application/database/mysql

To check whether the MySQL service is running:

shell> svcs -xv svc:/application/database/mysql

To disable MySQL from starting during boot time, and shut the MySQL server down if it is running:

shell> svcadm disable mysql

To restart MySQL, for example after a configuration file changes, use the restart option:

shell> svcadm restart mysql

You can also use SMF to configure the data directory and enable full 64-bit mode. For example, to set the data directory used by MySQL:

shell> svccfg 
svc:> select mysql:version_57 
svc:/application/database/mysql:version_57> setprop mysql/data=/data0/mysql
  

By default, the 32-bit binaries are used. To enable the 64-bit server on 64-bit platforms, set the enable_64bit parameter. For example:

svc:/application/database/mysql:version_57> setprop mysql/enable_64bit=1

You must refresh the SMF after setting these options:

shell> svcadm refresh mysql

2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD

This section provides information about installing MySQL on variants of FreeBSD Unix.

You can install MySQL on FreeBSD by using the binary distribution provided by Oracle. For more information, see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following benefits:

  • A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known to work on your version of FreeBSD.

  • Automatic configuration and build.

  • Startup scripts installed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d.

  • The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are installed.

  • The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer want it on your machine.

The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.

To install using the ports system:

# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql57-server
# make
...
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql57-client
# make
...

The standard port installation places the server into /usr/local/libexec/mysqld, with the startup script for the MySQL server placed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.

Some additional notes on the BSD implementation:

  • To remove MySQL after installation using the ports system:

    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql57-server
    # make deinstall
    ...
    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql57-client
    # make deinstall
    ...
    
  • If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable should help. See Section 5.9, “MySQL Program Environment Variables”.

2.9 Installing MySQL from Source

Building MySQL from the source code enables you to customize build parameters, compiler optimizations, and installation location. For a list of systems on which MySQL is known to run, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

Before you proceed with an installation from source, check whether Oracle produces a precompiled binary distribution for your platform and whether it works for you. We put a great deal of effort into ensuring that our binaries are built with the best possible options for optimal performance. Instructions for installing binary distributions are available in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Source Installation Methods

There are two methods for installing MySQL from source:

  • Use a standard MySQL source distribution. To obtain a standard distribution, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For instructions on building from a standard distribution, see Section 2.9.2, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”.

    Standard distributions are available as compressed tar files, Zip archives, or RPM packages. Distribution files have names of the form mysql-VERSION.tar.gz, mysql-VERSION.zip, or mysql-VERSION.rpm, where VERSION is a number like 5.7.18. File names for source distributions can be distinguished from those for precompiled binary distributions in that source distribution names are generic and include no platform name, whereas binary distribution names include a platform name indicating the type of system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

  • Use a MySQL development tree. For information on building from one of the development trees, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

Source Installation System Requirements

Installation of MySQL from source requires several development tools. Some of these tools are needed no matter whether you use a standard source distribution or a development source tree. Other tool requirements depend on which installation method you use.

To install MySQL from source, the following system requirements must be satisfied, regardless of installation method:

  • CMake, which is used as the build framework on all platforms. CMake can be downloaded from http://www.cmake.org.

  • A good make program. Although some platforms come with their own make implementations, it is highly recommended that you use GNU make 3.75 or higher. It may already be available on your system as gmake. GNU make is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/make/.

  • A working ANSI C++ compiler. See the description of the FORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILER. option for some guidelines.

  • The Boost C++ libraries are required to build MySQL (but not to use it). Boost 1.59.0 must be installed. To obtain Boost and its installation instructions, visit the official site. After Boost is installed, tell the build system where the Boost files are located by defining the WITH_BOOST option when you invoke CMake. For example:

    shell> cmake . -DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost_1_59_0
    

    Adjust the path as necessary to match your installation.

  • Sufficient free memory. If you encounter problems such as internal compiler error when compiling large source files, it may be that you have too little memory. If compiling on a virtual machine, try increasing the memory allocation.

  • Perl is needed if you intend to run test scripts. Most Unix-like systems include Perl. On Windows, you can use a version such as ActiveState Perl.

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution, one of the following tools is required to unpack the distribution file:

  • For a .tar.gz compressed tar file: GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

    GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

  • For a .zip Zip archive: WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

  • For an .rpm RPM package: The rpmbuild program used to build the distribution unpacks it.

To install MySQL from a development source tree, the following additional tools are required:

  • The Git revision control system is required to obtain the development source code. The GitHub Help provides instructions for downloading and installing Git on different platforms. MySQL officially joined GitHub in September, 2014. For more information about MySQL's move to GitHub, refer to the announcement on the MySQL Release Engineering blog: MySQL on GitHub

  • bison 2.1 or higher, available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. (Version 1 is no longer supported.) Use the latest version of bison where possible; if you experience problems, upgrade to a later version, rather than revert to an earlier one.

    bison is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. bison for Windows can be downloaded from http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/bison.htm. Download the package labeled Complete package, excluding sources. On Windows, the default location for bison is the C:\Program Files\GnuWin32 directory. Some utilities may fail to find bison because of the space in the directory name. Also, Visual Studio may simply hang if there are spaces in the path. You can resolve these problems by installing into a directory that does not contain a space; for example C:\GnuWin32.

  • On OpenSolaris and Solaris Express, m4 must be installed in addition to bison. m4 is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/.

Note

If you have to install any programs, modify your PATH environment variable to include any directories in which the programs are located. See Section 5.2.10, “Setting Environment Variables”.

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

2.9.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation

By default, when you install MySQL after compiling it from source, the installation step installs files under /usr/local/mysql. The component locations under the installation directory are the same as for binary distributions. See Table 2.3, “MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package”, and Section 2.3.1, “MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows”. To configure installation locations different from the defaults, use the options described at Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

2.9.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution:

  1. Verify that your system satisfies the tool requirements listed at Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  2. Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

  3. Configure, build, and install the distribution using the instructions in this section.

  4. Perform postinstallation procedures using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

In MySQL 5.7, CMake is used as the build framework on all platforms. The instructions given here should enable you to produce a working installation. For additional information on using CMake to build MySQL, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

If you start from a source RPM, use the following command to make a binary RPM that you can install. If you do not have rpmbuild, use rpm instead.

shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

The result is one or more binary RPM packages that you install as indicated in Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle”.

The sequence for installation from a compressed tar file or Zip archive source distribution is similar to the process for installing from a generic binary distribution (see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”), except that it is used on all platforms and includes steps to configure and compile the distribution. For example, with a compressed tar file source distribution on Unix, the basic installation command sequence looks like this:

# Preconfiguration setup
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
# Beginning of source-build specific instructions
shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld
shell> cmake ..
shell> make
shell> make install
# End of source-build specific instructions
# Postinstallation setup
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql    # Before MySQL 5.7.6
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql # MySQL 5.7.6 and up
shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup              # MySQL 5.7.6 and up
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

Before MySQL 5.7.5, mysql_install_db creates a default option file named my.cnf in the base installation directory. This file is created from a template included in the distribution package named my-default.cnf. For more information, see Section 6.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

Note

As of MySQL 5.7.18, my-default.cnf is no longer included in or installed by distribution packages.

A more detailed version of the source-build specific instructions is shown following.

Note

The procedure shown here does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”, for postinstallation setup and testing.

Perform Preconfiguration Setup

On Unix, set up the mysql user and group that will be used to run and execute the MySQL server and own the database directory. For details, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. Then perform the following steps as the mysql user, except as noted.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it.

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”.

Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

  • To unpack a compressed tar file, tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

    shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
    

    If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it:

    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    

    Alternatively, CMake can uncompress and unpack the distribution:

    shell> cmake -E tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
    
  • To unpack a Zip archive, use WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

Unpacking the distribution file creates a directory named mysql-VERSION.

Configure the Distribution

Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

shell> cd mysql-VERSION

Build out of the source tree to keep the tree clean. If the top-level source directory is named mysql-src under your current working directory, you can build in a directory named bld at the same level. Create the directory and go there:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld

Configure the build directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake ../mysql-src

The build directory needs not be outside the source tree. For example, you can build in a directory named bld under the top-level source tree. To do this, starting with mysql-src as your current working directory, create the directory bld and then go there:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld

Configure the build directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake ..

If you have multiple source trees at the same level (for example, to build multiple versions of MySQL), the second strategy can be advantageous. The first strategy places all build directories at the same level, which requires that you choose a unique name for each. With the second strategy, you can use the same name for the build directory within each source tree. The following instructions assume this second strategy.

On Windows, specify the development environment. For example, the following commands configure MySQL for 32-bit or 64-bit builds, respectively:

shell> cmake .. -G "Visual Studio 10 2010"
shell> cmake .. -G "Visual Studio 10 2010 Win64"

On macOS, to use the Xcode IDE:

shell> cmake .. -G Xcode

When you run cmake, you might want to add options to the command line. Here are some examples:

For a more extensive list of options, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

To list the configuration options, use one of the following commands:

shell> cmake .. -L   # overview
shell> cmake .. -LH  # overview with help text
shell> cmake .. -LAH # all params with help text
shell> ccmake ..     # interactive display

If CMake fails, you might need to reconfigure by running it again with different options. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run these commands in the build direcotry on Unix before re-running CMake:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

Or, on Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you are going to send mail to a MySQL mailing list to ask for configuration assistance, first check the files in the CMakeFiles directory for useful information about the failure. To file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

Build the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make
shell> make VERBOSE=1

The second command sets VERBOSE to show the commands for each compiled source.

Use gmake instead on systems where you are using GNU make and it has been installed as gmake.

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo

If you have gotten to the compilation stage, but the distribution does not build, see Section 2.9.5, “Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL”, for help. If that does not solve the problem, please enter it into our bugs database using the instructions given in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”. If you have installed the latest versions of the required tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you get a command not found error or a similar problem for required tools, do not report it. Instead, make sure that all the required tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.

Install the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make install

This installs the files under the configured installation directory (by default, /usr/local/mysql). You might need to run the command as root.

To install in a specific directory, add a DESTDIR parameter to the command line:

shell> make install DESTDIR="/opt/mysql"

Alternatively, generate installation package files that you can install where you like:

shell> make package

This operation produces one or more .tar.gz files that can be installed like generic binary distribution packages. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. If you run CMake with -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=1, the operation produces a single file. Otherwise, it produces multiple files.

On Windows, generate the data directory, then create a .zip archive installation package:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project initial_database
shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project package

You can install the resulting .zip archive where you like. See Section 2.3.5, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.9.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree

This section describes how to install MySQL from the latest development source code, which is hosted on GitHub. To obtain the MySQL Server source code from this repository hosting service, you can set up a local MySQL Git repository.

On GitHub, MySQL Server and other MySQL projects are found on the MySQL page. The MySQL Server project is a single repository that contains branches for several MySQL series.

MySQL officially joined GitHub in September, 2014. For more information about MySQL's move to GitHub, refer to the announcement on the MySQL Release Engineering blog: MySQL on GitHub

Prerequisites for Installing from Development Source

To install MySQL from a development source tree, your system must satisfy the tool requirements outlined in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

Setting Up a MySQL Git Repository

To set up a MySQL Git repository on your machine, use this procedure:

  1. Clone the MySQL Git repository to your machine. The following command clones the MySQL Git repository to a directory named mysql-server. The initial download will take some time to complete, depending on the speed of your connection.

    ~$ git clone https://github.com/mysql/mysql-server.git
    Cloning into 'mysql-server'...
    remote: Counting objects: 1035465, done.
    remote: Total 1035465 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
    Receiving objects: 100% (1035465/1035465), 437.48 MiB | 5.10 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (855607/855607), done.
    Checking connectivity... done.
    Checking out files: 100% (21902/21902), done.
  2. When the clone operation completes, the contents of your local MySQL Git repository appear similar to the following:

    ~$ cd mysql-server
    
    ~/mysql-server$ ls
    BUILD            COPYING             libmysqld    regex          unittest
    BUILD-CMAKE      dbug                libservices  scripts        VERSION
    client           Docs                man          sql            vio
    cmake            extra               mysql-test   sql-common     win
    CMakeLists.txt   include             mysys        storage        zlib
    cmd-line-utils   INSTALL-SOURCE      packaging    strings
    config.h.cmake   INSTALL-WIN-SOURCE  plugin       support-files
    configure.cmake  libmysql            README       tests
    
  3. Use the git branch -r command to view the remote tracking branches for the MySQL repository.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch -r
      origin/5.5
      origin/5.6
      origin/5.7
      origin/HEAD -> origin/5.7
      origin/cluster-7.2
      origin/cluster-7.3
      origin/cluster-7.4
  4. To view the branches that are checked out in your local repository, issue the git branch command. When you cloned the MySQL Git repository, the MySQL 5.7 branch was checked out automatically. The asterisk identifies the 5.7 branch as the active branch.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch
    * 5.7
  5. To check out a different MySQL branch, run the git checkout command, specifying the branch name. For example, to checkout the MySQL 5.5 branch:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 5.5
    Branch 5.5 set up to track remote branch 5.5 from origin.
    Switched to a new branch '5.5'
  6. Run git branch to verify that the MySQL 5.5 branch is present. MySQL 5.5, which is the last branch you checked out, is marked by an asterisk indicating that it is the active branch.

    ~/mysql-server$ git branch
    * 5.5
      5.7
  7. Use the git checkout command to switch between branches. For example:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 5.7
  8. To obtain changes made after your initial setup of the MySQL Git repository, switch to the branch you want to update and issue the git pull command:

    ~/mysql-server$ git checkout 5.7
    ~/mysql-server$ git pull
    

    To examine the commit history, use the git log option:

    ~/mysql-server$ git log
    

    You can also browse commit history and source code on the GitHub MySQL site.

    If you see changes or code that you have a question about, send an email to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.6.1, “MySQL Mailing Lists”. For information about contributing a patch, see Contributing to MySQL Server.

  9. After you have cloned the MySQL Git repository and have checked out the branch you want to build, you can build MySQL Server from the source code. Instructions are provided in Section 2.9.2, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”, except that you skip the part about obtaining and unpacking the distribution.

    Be careful about installing a build from a distribution source tree on a production machine. The installation command may overwrite your live release installation. If you already have MySQL installed and do not want to overwrite it, run CMake with values for the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options different from those used by your production server. For additional information about preventing multiple servers from interfering with each other, see Section 6.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

    Play hard with your new installation. For example, try to make new features crash. Start by running make test. See Section 27.1.2, “The MySQL Test Suite”.

2.9.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options

The CMake program provides a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically, you do this using options on the CMake command line. For information about options supported by CMake, run either of these commands in the top-level source directory:

shell> cmake . -LH
shell> ccmake .

You can also affect CMake using certain environment variables. See Section 5.9, “MySQL Program Environment Variables”.

The following table shows the available CMake options. In the Default column, PREFIX stands for the value of the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option, which specifies the installation base directory. This value is used as the parent location for several of the installation subdirectories.

Table 2.11 MySQL Source-Configuration Option Reference (CMake)

FormatsDescriptionDefaultIntroducedRemoved
BUILD_CONFIGUse same build options as official releases   
CMAKE_BUILD_TYPEType of build to produceRelWithDebInfo  
CMAKE_CXX_FLAGSFlags for C++ Compiler   
CMAKE_C_FLAGSFlags for C Compiler   
CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIXInstallation base directory/usr/local/mysql  
COMPILATION_COMMENTComment about compilation environment   
CPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALLWhether package build produces single fileOFF  
DEFAULT_CHARSETThe default server character setlatin1  
DEFAULT_COLLATIONThe default server collationlatin1_swedish_ci  
DISABLE_PSI_CONDExclude Performance Schema condition instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_FILEExclude Performance Schema file instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_IDLEExclude Performance Schema idle instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_MEMORYExclude Performance Schema memory instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_METADATAExclude Performance Schema metadata instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_MUTEXExclude Performance Schema mutex instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_RWLOCKExclude Performance Schema rwlock instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_SOCKETExclude Performance Schema socket instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_SPExclude Performance Schema stored program instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_STAGEExclude Performance Schema stage instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENTExclude Performance Schema statement instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT_DIGESTExclude Performance Schema statement_digest instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DISABLE_PSI_TABLEExclude Performance Schema table instrumentationOFF5.7.3 
DOWNLOAD_BOOSTWhether to download the Boost libraryOFF5.7.5 
DOWNLOAD_BOOST_TIMEOUTTimeout in seconds for downloading the Boost library6005.7.6 
-DWITH_PROTOBUFWhich Protocol Buffers package to usebundled5.7.12 
ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILEWhether to enable LOCAL for LOAD DATA INFILEOFF  
ENABLED_PROFILINGWhether to enable query profiling codeON  
ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNCWhether to enable Debug Sync supportON 5.7.1
ENABLE_DOWNLOADSWhether to download optional filesOFF  
ENABLE_DTRACEWhether to include DTrace support   
ENABLE_GCOVWhether to include gcov support   
ENABLE_GPROFEnable gprof (optimized Linux builds only)OFF  
FORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILERWhether to permit unsupported compilerOFF5.7.5 
IGNORE_AIO_CHECKWith -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release, ignore libaio checkOFF  
INNODB_PAGE_ATOMIC_REF_COUNTEnable or disable atomic page reference countingON5.7.45.7.5
INSTALL_BINDIRUser executables directoryPREFIX/bin  
INSTALL_DOCDIRDocumentation directoryPREFIX/docs  
INSTALL_DOCREADMEDIRREADME file directoryPREFIX  
INSTALL_INCLUDEDIRHeader file directoryPREFIX/include  
INSTALL_INFODIRInfo file directoryPREFIX/docs  
INSTALL_LAYOUTSelect predefined installation layoutSTANDALONE  
INSTALL_LIBDIRLibrary file directoryPREFIX/lib  
INSTALL_MANDIRManual page directoryPREFIX/man  
INSTALL_MYSQLKEYRINGDIRDirectory for keyring_file plugin data fileplatform specific5.7.11 
INSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIRShared data directoryPREFIX/share  
INSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIRmysql-test directoryPREFIX/mysql-test  
INSTALL_PKGCONFIGDIRDirectory for mysqlclient.pc pkg-config fileINSTALL_LIBDIR/pkgconfig5.7.9 
INSTALL_PLUGINDIRPlugin directoryPREFIX/lib/plugin  
INSTALL_SBINDIRServer executable directoryPREFIX/bin  
INSTALL_SCRIPTDIRScripts directoryPREFIX/scripts  
INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIVDIRsecure_file_priv default valueplatform specific5.7.6 
INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIV_EMBEDDEDDIRsecure_file_priv default value for libmysqld 5.7.8 
INSTALL_SHAREDIRaclocal/mysql.m4 installation directoryPREFIX/share  
INSTALL_SQLBENCHDIRsql-bench directoryPREFIX 5.7.8
INSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIRExtra support files directoryPREFIX/support-files  
MAX_INDEXESMaximum indexes per table645.7.1 
MUTEX_TYPEInnoDB mutex typeevent5.7.2 
MYSQLX_TCP_PORTTCP/IP port number used by X Plugin330605.7.17 
MYSQLX_UNIX_ADDRUnix socket file used by X Plugin/tmp/mysqlx.sock5.7.15 
MYSQL_DATADIRData directory   
MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODEWhether to enable MySQL maintainer-specific development environmentOFF  
MYSQL_PROJECT_NAMEWindows/OS X project nameMySQL  
MYSQL_TCP_PORTTCP/IP port number3306  
MYSQL_UNIX_ADDRUnix socket file/tmp/mysql.sock  
ODBC_INCLUDESODBC includes directory   
ODBC_LIB_DIRODBC library directory   
OPTIMIZER_TRACEWhether to support optimizer tracing   
SUNPRO_CXX_LIBRARYClient link library on Solaris 10+ 5.7.5 
SYSCONFDIROption file directory   
SYSTEMD_PID_DIRDirectory for PID file under systemd/var/run/mysqld5.7.6 
SYSTEMD_SERVICE_NAMEName of MySQL service under systemdmysqld5.7.6 
TMPDIRtmpdir default value 5.7.4 
WIN_DEBUG_NO_INLINEWhether to disable function inliningOFF5.7.6 
WITHOUT_SERVERDo not build the serverOFF  
WITHOUT_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINEExclude storage engine xxx from build   
WITH_ASANEnable AddressSanitizerOFF5.7.3 
WITH_AUTHENTICATION_PAMBuild PAM authentication pluginOFF  
WITH_BOOSTThe location of the Boost library sources 5.7.5 
WITH_CLIENT_PROTOCOL_TRACINGBuild client-side protocol tracing frameworkON5.7.2 
WITH_DEBUGWhether to include debugging supportOFF  
WITH_DEFAULT_COMPILER_OPTIONSWhether to use default compiler optionsON  
WITH_DEFAULT_FEATURE_SETWhether to use default feature setON  
WITH_EDITLINEWhich libedit/editline library to usebundled5.7.2 
WITH_EMBEDDED_SERVERWhether to build embedded serverOFF  
WITH_EMBEDDED_SHARED_LIBRARYWhether to build a shared embedded server libraryOFF5.7.4 
WITH_EXTRA_CHARSETSWhich extra character sets to includeall  
WITH_INNODB_EXTRA_DEBUGWhether to include extra debugging support for InnoDB.OFF5.7.2 
WITH_INNODB_MEMCACHEDWhether to generate memcached shared libraries.OFF  
WITH_KEYRING_TESTBuild the keyring test programOFF5.7.11 
WITH_LIBEVENTWhich libevent library to usebundled  
WITH_LIBWRAPWhether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) supportOFF  
WITH_LZ4Type of LZ4 supportbundled5.7.14 
WITH_MECABCompiles MeCab 5.7.6 
WITH_MSANEnable MemorySanitizerOFF5.7.4 
WITH_MSCRT_DEBUGEnable Visual Studio CRT memory leak tracingOFF5.7.6 
WITH_NDBCLUSTERBuild the NDB storage engine; alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINEON  
WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINEBuild the NDB storage engineON  
WITH_NUMASet NUMA memory allocation policy 5.7.17 
WITH_RAPIDWhether to build rapid development cycle pluginsON5.7.12 
WITH_SSLType of SSL supportbundled  
WITH_SYSTEMDEnable installation of systemd support filesOFF5.7.6 
WITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGINBuild test protocol trace pluginOFF5.7.2 
WITH_UBSANEnable Undefined Behavior SanitizerOFF5.7.6 
WITH_UNIXODBCEnable unixODBC supportOFF  
WITH_VALGRINDWhether to compile in Valgrind header filesOFF  
WITH_ZLIBType of zlib supportbundled  
WITH_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINECompile storage engine xxx statically into server   

The following sections provide more information about CMake options.

For boolean options, the value may be specified as 1 or ON to enable the option, or as 0 or OFF to disable the option.

Many options configure compile-time defaults that can be overridden at server startup. For example, the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options that configure the default installation base directory location, TCP/IP port number, and Unix socket file can be changed at server startup with the --basedir, --port, and --socket options for mysqld. Where applicable, configuration option descriptions indicate the corresponding mysqld startup option.

General Options

  • -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release

    This option configures a source distribution with the same build options used by Oracle to produce binary distributions for official MySQL releases.

  • -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=type

    The type of build to produce:

    • RelWithDebInfo: Enable optimizations and generate debugging information. This is the default MySQL build type.

    • Debug: Disable optimizations and generate debugging information. This build type is also used if the WITH_DEBUG option is enabled. That is, -DWITH_DEBUG=1 has the same effect as -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug.

  • -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=bool

    This option affects whether the make package operation produces multiple installation package files or a single file. If disabled, the operation produces multiple installation package files, which may be useful if you want to install only a subset of a full MySQL installation. If enabled, it produces a single file for installing everything.

Installation Layout Options

The CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option indicates the base installation directory. Other options with names of the form INSTALL_xxx that indicate component locations are interpreted relative to the prefix and their values are relative pathnames. Their values should not include the prefix.

  • -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=dir_name

    The installation base directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --basedir option.

  • -DINSTALL_BINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install user programs.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCDIR=dir_name

    Where to install documentation.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCREADMEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install README files.

  • -DINSTALL_INCLUDEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install header files.

  • -DINSTALL_INFODIR=dir_name

    Where to install Info files.

  • -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=name

    Select a predefined installation layout:

    • STANDALONE: Same layout as used for .tar.gz and .zip packages. This is the default.

    • RPM: Layout similar to RPM packages.

    • SVR4: Solaris package layout.

    • DEB: DEB package layout (experimental).

    You can select a predefined layout but modify individual component installation locations by specifying other options. For example:

    shell> cmake . -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=SVR4 -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/var/mysql/data
    

    As of MySQL 5.7.6, the INSTALL_LAYOUT value determines the default value of the secure_file_priv system and keyring_file_data system variables; see the descriptions of those variables in Section 6.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

  • -DINSTALL_LIBDIR=dir_name

    Where to install library files.

  • -DINSTALL_MANDIR=dir_name

    Where to install manual pages.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLKEYRINGDIR=dir_path

    The default directory to use as the location of the keyring_file plugin data file. The default value is platform specific and depends on the value of the INSTALL_LAYOUT CMake option; see the description of the keyring_file_data system variable in Section 6.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.11.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install shared data files.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysql-test directory. As of MySQL 5.7.2, to suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=).

  • -DINSTALL_PKGCONFIGDIR=dir_name

    The directory in which to install the mysqlclient.pc file for use by pkg-config. The default value is INSTALL_LIBDIR/pkgconfig, unless INSTALL_LIBDIR ends with /mysql, in which case that is removed first.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.9.

  • -DINSTALL_PLUGINDIR=dir_name

    The location of the plugin directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --plugin_dir option.

  • -DINSTALL_SBINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysqld server.

  • -DINSTALL_SCRIPTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install mysql_install_db.

  • -DINSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIVDIR=dir_name

    The default value for the secure_file_priv system variable. The default value is platform specific and depends on the value of the INSTALL_LAYOUT CMake option; see the description of the secure_file_priv system variable in Section 6.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.6. To set the value for the libmysqld embedded server, use INSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIV_EMBEDDEDDIR.

  • -DINSTALL_SECURE_FILE_PRIV_EMBEDDEDDIR=dir_name

    The default value for the secure_file_priv system variable, for the libmysqld embedded server. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.8.

    Note

    The libmysqld embedded server library is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.17 and will be removed in MySQL 8.0.

  • -DINSTALL_SHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install aclocal/mysql.m4.

  • -DINSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the sql-bench directory. To suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR=).

    As of MySQL 5.7.8, the sql-bench directory is no longer included in MYSQL distributions, so the INSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR= option is removed as well.

  • -DINSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIR=dir_name

    Where to install extra support files.

  • -DMYSQL_DATADIR=dir_name

    The location of the MySQL data directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --datadir option.

  • -DODBC_INCLUDES=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC includes directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DODBC_LIB_DIR=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC library directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DSYSCONFDIR=dir_name

    The default my.cnf option file directory.

    This location cannot be set at server startup, but you can start the server with a given option file using the --defaults-file=file_name option, where file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • -DSYSTEMD_PID_DIR=dir_name

    The name of the directory in which to create the PID file when MySQL is managed by systemd. The default is /var/run/mysqld; this might be changed implicitly according to the INSTALL_LAYOUT value.

    This option is ignored unless WITH_SYSTEMD is enabled. It was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

  • -DSYSTEMD_SERVICE_NAME=name

    The name of the MySQL service to use when MySQL is managed by systemd. The default is mysqld; this might be changed implicitly according to the INSTALL_LAYOUT value.

    This option is ignored unless WITH_SYSTEMD is enabled. It was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

  • -DTMPDIR=dir_name

    The default location to use for the tmpdir system variable. If unspecified, the value defaults to P_tmpdir in <stdio.h>. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.4.

Storage Engine Options

Storage engines are built as plugins. You can build a plugin as a static module (compiled into the server) or a dynamic module (built as a dynamic library that must be installed into the server using the INSTALL PLUGIN statement or the --plugin-load option before it can be used). Some plugins might not support static or dynamic building.

The InnoDB, MyISAM, MERGE, MEMORY, and CSV engines are mandatory (always compiled into the server) and need not be installed explicitly.

To compile a storage engine statically into the server, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. Some permissible engine values are ARCHIVE, BLACKHOLE, EXAMPLE, FEDERATED, NDB or NDBCLUSTER (NDB), PARTITION (partitioning support), and PERFSCHEMA (Performance Schema; this applies only before MySQL 5.7.9, at which point the Performance Schema becomes mandatory). Examples:

-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
Note

WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE is supported only when building MySQL Cluster using the MySQL Cluster sources. It cannot be used to enable clustering support in other MySQL source trees or distributions. In MySQL Cluster source distributions, it is enabled by default. See Section 20.2.2.4, “Building NDB Cluster from Source on Linux”, and Section 20.2.3.2, “Compiling and Installing NDB Cluster from Source on Windows”, for more information.

Note

As of MySQL 5.7.9, it is not possible to compile without Performance Schema support. If it is desired to compile without particular types of instrumentation, that can be done with the following CMake options:

DISABLE_PSI_COND
DISABLE_PSI_FILE
DISABLE_PSI_IDLE
DISABLE_PSI_MEMORY
DISABLE_PSI_METADATA
DISABLE_PSI_MUTEX
DISABLE_PSI_PS
DISABLE_PSI_RWLOCK
DISABLE_PSI_SOCKET
DISABLE_PSI_SP
DISABLE_PSI_STAGE
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT
DISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT_DIGEST
DISABLE_PSI_TABLE
DISABLE_PSI_THREAD
DISABLE_PSI_TRANSACTION

For example, to compile without mutex instrumentation, configure MySQL using the -DDISABLE_PSI_MUTEX=1 option.

As of MySQL 5.7.4, to exclude a storage engine from the build, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=0. Examples:

-DWITH_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=0
-DWITH_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=0
-DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=0

Before MySQL 5.7.4, to exclude a storage engine from the build, use -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. (That syntax also works in 5.7.4 or later, but -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=0 is preferred.) Examples:

-DWITHOUT_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

If neither -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE nor -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE are specified for a given storage engine, the engine is built as a shared module, or excluded if it cannot be built as a shared module.

Feature Options

  • -DCOMPILATION_COMMENT=string

    A descriptive comment about the compilation environment.

  • -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=charset_name

    The server character set. By default, MySQL uses the latin1 (cp1252 West European) character set.

    charset_name may be one of binary, armscii8, ascii, big5, cp1250, cp1251, cp1256, cp1257, cp850, cp852, cp866, cp932, dec8, eucjpms, euckr, gb2312, gbk, geostd8, greek, hebrew, hp8, keybcs2, koi8r, koi8u, latin1, latin2, latin5, latin7, macce, macroman, sjis, swe7, tis620, ucs2, ujis, utf8, utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, utf32. The permissible character sets are listed in the cmake/character_sets.cmake file as the value of CHARSETS_AVAILABLE.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --character_set_server option.

  • -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=collation_name

    The server collation. By default, MySQL uses latin1_swedish_ci. Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available for each character set.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --collation_server option.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_COND=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema condition instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_FILE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema file instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_IDLE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema idle instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_MEMORY=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema memory instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_METADATA=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema metadata instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_MUTEX=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema mutex instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_RWLOCK=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema rwlock instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_SOCKET=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema socket instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_SP=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema stored program instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_STAGE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema stage instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema statement instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_STATEMENT_DIGEST=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema statement_digest instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDISABLE_PSI_TABLE=bool

    Whether to exclude the Performance Schema table instrumentation. The default is OFF (include). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=bool

    Whether to download the Boost library. The default is OFF. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.

    See the WITH_BOOST option for additional discussion about using Boost.

  • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST_TIMEOUT=seconds

    The timeout in seconds for downloading the Boost library. The default is 600 seconds. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

    See the WITH_BOOST option for additional discussion about using Boost.

  • -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=bool

    Note

    As of MySQL 5.7.18, ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC is removed and enabling WITH_DEBUG enables Debug Sync.

    Whether to compile the Debug Sync facility into the server. This facility is used for testing and debugging. This option is enabled by default, but has no effect unless MySQL is configured with debugging enabled. If debugging is enabled and you want to disable Debug Sync, use -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=0.

    When compiled in, Debug Sync is disabled by default at runtime. To enable it, start mysqld with the --debug-sync-timeout=N option, where N is a timeout value greater than 0. (The default value is 0, which disables Debug Sync.) N becomes the default timeout for individual synchronization points.

    As of MySQL 5.7.8, sync debug checking for the InnoDB storage engine is available when debugging support is compiled in using the WITH_DEBUG option.

    For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test Synchronization.

  • -DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=bool

    Whether to download optional files. For example, with this option enabled, CMake downloads the Google Test distribution that is used by the test suite to run unit tests.

  • -DENABLE_DTRACE=bool

    Whether to include support for DTrace probes. For information about DTrace, wee Section 6.7, “Tracing mysqld Using DTrace”

    This option is deprecated because support for DTrace is deprecated in MySQL 5.7 and is removed in MySQL 8.0.

  • -DENABLE_GCOV=bool

    Whether to include gcov support (Linux only).

  • -DENABLE_GPROF=bool

    Whether to enable gprof (optimized Linux builds only).

  • -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=bool

    Whether to enable LOCAL capability in the client library for LOAD DATA INFILE.

    This option controls client-side LOCAL capability, but the capability can be set on the server side at server startup with the --local-infile option. See Section 7.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”.

  • -DENABLED_PROFILING=bool

    Whether to enable query profiling code (for the SHOW PROFILE and SHOW PROFILES statements).

  • -DFORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILER=bool

    By default, CMake checks for minimum versions of supported compilers: Visual Studio 2013 (Windows); GCC 4.4 or Clang 3.3 (Linux); Developer Studio 12.5 (Solaris server); Developer Studio 12.2 or GCC 4.4 (Solaris client library); Clang 3.3 (macOS), Clang 3.3 (FreeBSD). To disable this check, use -DFORCE_UNSUPPORTED_COMPILER=ON. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.

  • -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=bool

    If the -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release option is given on Linux, the libaio library must be linked in by default. If you do not have libaio or do not want to install it, you can suppress the check for it by specifying -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=1.

  • -DINNODB_PAGE_ATOMIC_REF_COUNT=bool

    Whether to enable or disable atomic page reference counting. Fetching and releasing pages from the buffer pool and tracking the page state are expensive and complex operations. Using a page mutex to track these operations does not scale well. With INNODB_PAGE_ATOMIC_REF_COUNT=ON (default), fetch and release is tracked using atomics where available. For platforms that do not support atomics, set INNODB_PAGE_ATOMIC_REF_COUNT=OFF to disable atomic page reference counting.

    When atomic page reference counting is enabled (default), [Note] InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pages is printed to the error log at server startup. If atomic page reference counting is disabled, [Note] InnoDB: Using mutexes to ref count buffer pool pages is printed instead.

    INNODB_PAGE_ATOMIC_REF_COUNT was introduced with the fix for MySQL Bug #68079. The option is removed in MySQL 5.7.5. Support for atomics is required to build MySQL as of MySQL 5.7.5, which makes the option obsolete.

  • -DMAX_INDEXES=num

    The maximum number of indexes per table. The default is 64. The maximum is 255. Values smaller than 64 are ignored and the default of 64 is used.

  • -DMYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE=bool

    Whether to enable a MySQL maintainer-specific development environment. If enabled, this option causes compiler warnings to become errors.

    As of MySQL 5.7.18, enabling WITH_DEBUG also enables Debug Sync. For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test Synchronization.

  • -DMUTEX_TYPE=type

    The mutex type used by InnoDB. Options include:

    • event: Use event mutexes. This is the default value and the original InnoDB mutex implementation.

    • sys: Use POSIX mutexes on UNIX systems. Use CRITICAL_SECTION onjects on Windows, if available.

    • futex: Use Linux futexes instead of condition variables to schedule waiting threads.

  • -DMYSQL_PROJECT_NAME=name

    For Windows or macOS, the project name to incorporate into the project file name.

  • -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=port_num

    The port number on which the server listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is 3306.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --port option.

  • -DMYSQLX_TCP_PORT=port_num

    The port number on which X Plugin listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is 33060.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --mysqlx_port option.

  • -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=file_name

    The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for socket connections. This must be an absolute path name. The default is /tmp/mysql.sock.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --socket option.

  • -DMYSQLX_UNIX_ADDR=file_name

    The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for X Plugin socket connections. This must be an absolute path name. The default is /tmp/mysqlx.sock.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --mysqlx-socket option.

  • -DOPTIMIZER_TRACE=bool

    Whether to support optimizer tracing. See MySQL Internals: Tracing the Optimizer.

  • -DWIN_DEBUG_NO_INLINE=bool

    Whether to disable function inlining on Windows. The default is off (inlining enabled). This option was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

  • -DWITH_ASAN=bool

    Whether to enable the AddressSanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.3.

  • -DWITH_AUTHENTICATION_PAM=bool

    Whether to build the PAM authentication plugin, for source trees that include this plugin. (See Section 7.5.1.5, “The PAM Authentication Plugin”.) Beginning with MySQL 5.7.2, if this option is specified and the plugin cannot be compiled, the build fails.

  • -DWITH_BOOST=path_name

    As of MySQL 5.7.5, the Boost library is required to build MySQL. These CMake options enable control over the library source location, and whether to download it automatically:

    • -DWITH_BOOST=path_name specifies the Boost library directory location. It is also possible to specify the Boost location by setting the BOOST_ROOT or WITH_BOOST environment variable.

      As of MySQL 5.7.11, -DWITH_BOOST=system is permitted and indicates that the correct version of Boost is installed on the compilation host in the standard location. In this case, the installed version of Boost is used rather than any version included with a MySQL source distribution.

    • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=bool specifies whether to download the Boost source if it is not present in the specified location. The default is OFF.

    • -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST_TIMEOUT=seconds the timeout in seconds for downloading the Boost library. The default is 600 seconds.

    For example, if you normally build MySQL placing the object output in the bld subdirectory of your MySQL source tree, you can build with Boost like this:

    mkdir bld
    cd bld
    cmake .. -DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=ON -DWITH_BOOST=$HOME/my_boost
    

    This causes Boost to be downloaded into the my_boost directory under your home directory. If the required Boost version is already there, no download is done. If the required Boost version changes, the newer version is downloaded.

    If Boost is already installed locally and your compiler finds the Boost header files on its own, it may not be necessary to specify the preceding CMake options. However, if the version of Boost required by MySQL changes and the locally installed version has not been upgraded, you may have build problems. Using the CMake options should give you a successful build.

  • -DWITH_CLIENT_PROTOCOL_TRACING=bool

    Whether to build the client-side protocol tracing framework into the client library. By default, this option is enabled. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.2.

    For information about writing protocol trace client plugins, see Section 27.2.4.11, “Writing Protocol Trace Plugins”.

    See also the WITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN option.

  • -DWITH_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to include debugging support.

    Configuring MySQL with debugging support enables you to use the --debug="d,parser_debug" option when you start the server. This causes the Bison parser that is used to process SQL statements to dump a parser trace to the server's standard error output. Typically, this output is written to the error log.

    As of MySQL 5.7.8, sync debug checking for the InnoDB storage engine is defined under UNIV_DEBUG and is available when debugging support is compiled in using the WITH_DEBUG option. When debugging support is compiled in, the innodb_sync_debug configuration option can be used to enable or disable InnoDB sync debug checking.

  • -DWITH_DEFAULT_FEATURE_SET=bool

    Whether to use the flags from cmake/build_configurations/feature_set.cmake.

  • -DWITH_EDITLINE=value

    Which libedit/editline library to use. The permitted values are bundled (the default) and system.

    WITH_EDITLINE was added in MySQL 5.7.2. It replaces WITH_LIBEDIT, which has been removed.

  • -DWITH_EMBEDDED_SERVER=bool

    Whether to build the libmysqld embedded server library.

    Note

    The libmysqld embedded server library is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.17 and will be removed in MySQL 8.0.

  • -DWITH_EMBEDDED_SHARED_LIBRARY=bool

    Whether to build a shared libmysqld embedded server library. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.4.

    Note

    The libmysqld embedded server library is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.17 and will be removed in MySQL 8.0.

  • -DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=name

    Which extra character sets to include:

    • all: All character sets. This is the default.

    • complex: Complex character sets.

    • none: No extra character sets.

  • -DWITH_INNODB_EXTRA_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to include extra InnoDB debugging support.

    Enabling WITH_INNODB_EXTRA_DEBUG turns on extra InnoDB debug checks. This option can only be enabled when WITH_DEBUG is enabled.

  • -DWITH_INNODB_MEMCACHED=bool

    Whether to generate memcached shared libraries (libmemcached.so and innodb_engine.so).

  • -DWITH_KEYRING_TEST=bool

    Whether to build the test program that accompanies the keyring_file plugin. The default is OFF. Test file source code is located in the plugin/keyring/keyring-test directory.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.11.

  • -DWITH_LIBEVENT=string

    Which libevent library to use. Permitted values are bundled (default), system, and yes. If you specify system or yes, the system libevent library is used if present. If the system library is not found, the bundled libevent library is used. The libevent library is required by InnoDB memcached.

  • -DWITH_LIBWRAP=bool

    Whether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) support.

  • -DWITH_LZ4=lz4_type

    The WITH_LZ4 indicates the source of zlib support:

    • bundled: Use the LZ4 library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system LZ4 library. If WITH_LZ4 is set to this value, the lz4_decompress utility is not built. In this case, the system lz4 command can be used instead.

  • -DWITH_MSAN=bool

    Whether to enable MemorySanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off.

    For this option to have an effect if enabled, all libraries linked to MySQL must also have been compiled with the option enabled.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.4.

  • -DWITH_MECAB={disabled|system|path_name}

    Use this option to compile the MeCab parser. If you have installed MeCab to its default installation directory, set -DWITH_MECAB=system. The system option applies to MeCab installations performed from source or from binaries using a native package management utility. If you installed MeCab to a custom installation directory, specify the path to the MeCab installation. For example, -DWITH_MECAB=/opt/mecab. If the system option does not work, specifying the MeCab installation path should work in all cases.

    For related information, see Section 13.9.9, “MeCab Full-Text Parser Plugin”.

  • -DWITH_MSCRT_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to enable Visual Studio CRT memory leak tracing. The default is OFF. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

  • -DWITH_NUMA=bool

    Explicitly set the NUMA memory allocation policy. CMake sets the default WITH_NUMA value based on whether the current platform has NUMA support. For platforms without NUMA support, CMake behaves as follows:

    • With no NUMA option (the normal case), CMake continues normally, producing only this warning: NUMA library missing or required version not available

    • With -DWITH_NUMA=ON, CMake aborts with this error: NUMA library missing or required version not available

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.17.

  • -DWITH_PROTOBUF=protobuf_type

    Which Protocol Buffers package to use. protobuf_type can be one of the following values:

    • bundled: Use the package bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the package installed on the system.

    Other values are ignored, with a fallback to bundled.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.12.

  • -DWITH_RAPID=bool

    Whether to build the rapid development cycle plugins. When enabled, a rapid directory is created in the build tree containing these plugins. When disabled, no rapid directory is created in the build tree. The default is ON, unless the rapid directory is removed from the source tree, in which case the default becomes OFF. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.12.

  • -DWITH_SSL={ssl_type|path_name}

    The type of SSL support to include or the path name to the OpenSSL installation to use.

    • ssl_type can be one of the following values:

      • yes: Use the system SSL library if present, else the library bundled with the distribution.

      • bundled: Use the SSL library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

      • system: Use the system SSL library.

    • path_name is the path name to the OpenSSL installation to use. Using this can be preferable to using the ssl_type value of system, for it can prevent CMake from detecting and using an older or incorrect OpenSSL version installed on the system. (Another permitted way to do the same thing is to set the CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH option to path_name.)

    For information about using SSL support, see Section 7.4, “Using Secure Connections”.

  • -DWITH_SYSTEMD=bool

    Whether to enable installation of systemd support files. By default, this option is disabled. When enabled, systemd support files are installed, and scripts such as mysqld_safe and the System V initialization script are not installed. On platforms where systemd is not available, enabling WITH_SYSTEMD results in an error from CMake.

    For more information about using systemd, see Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”. That section also includes information about specifying options previously specified in [mysqld_safe] option groups. Because mysqld_safe is not installed when systemd is used, such options must be specified another way.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

  • -DWITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN=bool

    Whether to build the test protocol trace client plugin (see Section 27.2.4.11.1, “Using the Test Protocol Trace Plugin”). By default, this option is disabled. Enabling this option has no effect unless the WITH_CLIENT_PROTOCOL_TRACING option is enabled. If MySQL is configured with both options enabled, the libmysqlclient client library is built with the test protocol trace plugin built in, and all the standard MySQL clients load the plugin. However, even when the test plugin is enabled, it has no effect by default. Control over the plugin is afforded using environment variables; see Section 27.2.4.11.1, “Using the Test Protocol Trace Plugin”.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.2.

    Note

    Do not enable the WITH_TEST_TRACE_PLUGIN option if you want to use your own protocol trace plugins because only one such plugin can be loaded at a time and an error occurs for attempts to load a second one. If you have already built MySQL with the test protocol trace plugin enabled to see how it works, you must rebuild MySQL without it before you can use your own plugins.

    For information about writing trace plugins, see Section 27.2.4.11, “Writing Protocol Trace Plugins”.

  • -DWITH_UBSAN=bool

    Whether to enable the Undefined Behavior Sanitizer, for compilers that support it. The default is off. This option was added in MySQL 5.7.6.

  • -DWITH_UNIXODBC=1

    Enables unixODBC support, for Connector/ODBC.

  • -DWITH_VALGRIND=bool

    Whether to compile in the Valgrind header files, which exposes the Valgrind API to MySQL code. The default is OFF.

    To generate a Valgrind-aware debug build, -DWITH_VALGRIND=1 normally is combined with -DWITH_DEBUG=1. See Building Debug Configurations.

  • -DWITH_ZLIB=zlib_type

    Some features require that the server be built with compression library support, such as the COMPRESS() and UNCOMPRESS() functions, and compression of the client/server protocol. The WITH_ZLIB indicates the source of zlib support:

    • bundled: Use the zlib library bundled with the distribution. This is the default.

    • system: Use the system zlib library.

  • -DWITHOUT_SERVER=bool

    Whether to build without the MySQL server. The default is OFF, which does build the server.

Compiler Flags

  • -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS="flags"

    Flags for the C Compiler.

  • -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS="flags"

    Flags for the C++ Compiler.

  • -DWITH_DEFAULT_COMPILER_OPTIONS=bool

    Whether to use the flags from cmake/build_configurations/compiler_options.cmake.

    Note

    All optimization flags were carefully chosen and tested by the MySQL build team. Overriding them can lead to unexpected results and is done at your own risk.

  • -DSUNPRO_CXX_LIBRARY="lib_name"

    Enable linking against libCstd instead of stlport4 on Solaris 10 or later. This works only for client code because the server depends on C++98. Example usage:

    cmake -DWITHOUT_SERVER=1 -DSUNPRO_CXX_LIBRARY=Cstd
    

    This option was added in MySQL 5.7.5.

To specify your own C and C++ compiler flags, for flags that do not affect optimization, use the CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS CMake options.

When providing your own compiler flags, you might want to specify CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE as well.

For example, to create a 32-bit release build on a 64-bit Linux machine, do this:

shell> mkdir bld
shell> cd bld
shell> cmake .. -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS=-m32 \
         -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS=-m32 \
         -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=RelWithDebInfo

If you set flags that affect optimization (-Onumber), you must set the CMAKE_C_FLAGS_build_type and/or CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_build_type options, where build_type corresponds to the CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE value. To specify a different optimization for the default build type (RelWithDebInfo) set the CMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO options. For example, to compile on Linux with -O3 and with debug symbols, do this:

shell> cmake .. -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO="-O3 -g" \
         -DCMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO="-O3 -g"

CMake Options for Compiling MySQL Cluster

The following options are for use when building MySQL Cluster with the MySQL Cluster sources; they are not currently supported when using sources from the MySQL 5.6 Server tree.

  • -DMEMCACHED_HOME=dir_name

    Perform the build using the memcached (version 1.6 or later) installed in the system directory indicated by dir_name. Files from this installation that are used in the build include the memcached binary, header files, and libraries, as well as the memcached_utilities library and the header file engine_testapp.h.

    You must leave this option unset when building ndbmemcache using the bundled memcached sources (WITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED option); in other words, the bundled sources are used by default).

    While additional CMake options—such as for SASL authorization and for providing dtrace support—are available for use when compiling memcached from external sources, these options are currently not enabled for the memcached sources bundled with MySQL Cluster.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_LIBEVENT={ON|OFF}

    Use the libevent included in the MySQL Cluster sources when building MySQL Cluster with ndbmemcached support. Enabled by default. OFF causes the system's libevent to be used instead.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED={ON|OFF}

    Build the memcached sources included in the MySQL Cluster source tree, then use the resulting memcached server when building the ndbmemcache engine. In this case, make install places the memcached binary in the installation bin directory, and the ndbmemcache engine shared library file ndb_engine.so in the installation lib directory.

    This option is ON by default.

  • -DWITH_CLASSPATH=path

    Sets the classpath for building MySQL Cluster Connector for Java. The default is empty. This option is ignored if -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF is used.

  • -DWITH_ERROR_INSERT={ON|OFF}

    Enables error injection in the NDB kernel. For testing only; not intended for use in building production binaries. The default is OFF.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE={ON|OFF}

    Build and link in support for the NDB (NDBCLUSTER) storage engine in mysqld. The default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER={ON|OFF}

    This is an alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE.

  • -DWITH_NDBMTD={ON|OFF}

    Build the multi-threaded data node executable ndbmtd. The default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDB_BINLOG={ON|OFF}

    Enable binary logging by default in the mysqld built using this option. ON by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_DEBUG={ON|OFF}

    Enable building the debug versions of the MySQL Cluster binaries. OFF by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_JAVA={ON|OFF}

    Enable building MySQL Cluster with Java support, including ClusterJ.

    This option is ON by default. If you do not wish to compile MySQL Cluster with Java support, you must disable it explicitly by specifying -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF when running CMake. Otherwise, if Java cannot be found, configuration of the build fails.

  • -DWITH_NDB_PORT=port

    Causes the MySQL Cluster management server (ndb_mgmd) that is built to use this port by default. If this option is unset, the resulting management server tries to use port 1186 by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_TEST={ON|OFF}

    If enabled, include a set of NDB API test programs. The default is OFF.

2.9.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run the following commands before re-running CMake:

On Unix:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you build outside of the source tree, remove and recreate your build directory before re-running CMake. For instructions on building outside of the source tree, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

On some systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. The following list describes other problems that have been found to occur most often when compiling MySQL:

  • To define which C and C++ compilers to use, you can define the CC and CXX environment variables. For example:

    shell> CC=gcc
    shell> CXX=g++
    shell> export CC CXX
    

    To specify your own C and C++ compiler flags, use the CMAKE_C_FLAGS and CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS CMake options. See Compiler Flags.

    To see what flags you might need to specify, invoke mysql_config with the --cflags and --cxxflags options.

  • To see what commands are executed during the compile stage, after using CMake to configure MySQL, run make VERBOSE=1 rather than just make.

  • If compilation fails, check whether the MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE option is enabled. This mode causes compiler warnings to become errors, so disabling it may enable compilation to proceed.

  • If your compile fails with errors such as any of the following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:

    make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
    Badly formed macro assignment
    

    Or:

    make: file `Makefile' line 18: Must be a separator (:
    

    Or:

    pthread.h: No such file or directory
    

    Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.

    GNU make 3.75 is known to work.

  • The sql_yacc.cc file is generated from sql_yacc.yy. Normally, the build process does not need to create sql_yacc.cc because MySQL comes with a pregenerated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:

    "sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...
    

    This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install a recent version of bison (the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.

    Versions of bison older than 1.75 may report this error:

    sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded
    

    The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is caused by bugs in older versions of bison.

For information about acquiring or updating tools, see the system requirements in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.9.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools

Third-party tools that need to determine the MySQL version from the MySQL source can read the VERSION file in the top-level source directory. The file lists the pieces of the version separately. For example, if the version is MySQL 5.7.4-m14, the file looks like this:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR=5
MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR=7
MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH=4
MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA=-m14

If the source is not for a General Availablility (GA) release, the MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA value will be nonempty. For the example, the value corresponds to Milestone 14.

To construct a five-digit number from the version components, use this formula:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR*10000 + MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR*100 + MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH

2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing

This section discusses tasks that you should perform after installing MySQL:

  • If necessary, initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. For some MySQL installation methods, data directory initialization may be done for you automatically:

    • Windows distributions prior to MySQL 5.7.7 include a data directory with pre-built tables in the mysql database. As of 5.7.7, Windows installation operations performed by MySQL Installer initialize the data directory automatically.

    • Installation on Linux using a server RPM or Debian distribution from Oracle.

    • Installation using the native packaging system on many platforms, including Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Gentoo Linux, and others.

    • Installation on OS X using a DMG distribution.

    For other platforms and installation types, including installation from generic binary and source distributions, you must initialize the data directory yourself. For instructions, see Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”.

  • Start the server and make sure that it can be accessed. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Starting the Server”, and Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

  • Assign passwords to the initial root account in the grant tables, if that was not already done during data directory initialization. Passwords prevent unauthorized access to the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

  • Optionally, arrange for the server to start and stop automatically when your system starts and stops. For instructions, see Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

  • Optionally, populate time zone tables to enable recognition of named time zones. For instructions, see Section 11.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

When you are ready to create additional user accounts, you can find information on the MySQL access control system and account management in Section 7.2, “The MySQL Access Privilege System”, and Section 7.3, “MySQL User Account Management”.

2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory

After installing MySQL, you must initialize the data directory, including the tables in the mysql system database. For some MySQL installation methods, data directory initialization may be done automatically, as described in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”. For other installation methods, including installation from generic binary and source distributions, you must initialize the data directory yourself.

This section describes how to initialize the data directory on Unix and Unix-like systems. (For Windows, see Section 2.3.7, “Windows Postinstallation Procedures”.) For some suggested commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of the mysql login account. This assumes that such an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist, or substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running the server. For information about creating the account, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

  1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented here by BASEDIR:

    shell> cd BASEDIR
    

    BASEDIR is likely to be something like /usr/local/mysql or /usr/local. The following steps assume that you have changed location to this directory.

    You will find several files and subdirectories in the BASEDIR directory. The most important for installation purposes are the bin and scripts subdirectories, which contain the server as well as client and utility programs.

  2. Create a directory that provides a location to use as the value of the secure_file_priv system variable that limits import/export operations to a specific directory. See Section 6.1.5, “Server System Variables”.

    shell> mkdir mysql-files
    shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
    
  3. If necessary, ensure that the distribution contents are accessible to mysql. If you installed the distribution as mysql, no further action is required. If you installed the distribution as root, its contents will be owned by root. Change its ownership to mysql by executing the following commands as root in the installation directory. The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the mysql user. The second changes the group attribute to the mysql group.

    shell> chown -R mysql .
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
    
  4. If necessary, initialize the data directory, including the mysql database containing the initial MySQL grant tables that determine how users are permitted to connect to the server.

    Typically, data directory initialization need be done only the first time you install MySQL. If you are upgrading an existing installation, you should run mysql_upgrade instead (see Section 5.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”). However, the command that initializes the data directory does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances.

    As of MySQL 5.7.6, use the server to initialize the data directory:

    shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
    

    Before MySQL 5.7.6, use mysql_install_db:

    shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    

    For more information, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld”, or Section 2.10.1.2, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysql_install_db”, depending on which command you use.

  5. If you want the server to be able to deploy with automatic support for secure connections, use the mysql_ssl_rsa_setup utility to create default SSL and RSA files:

    shell> mysql_ssl_rsa_setup
    

    For more information, see Section 5.4.5, “mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files”.

  6. After initializing the data directory, you can establish the final installation ownership settings. To leave the installation owned by mysql, no action is required here. Otherwise, most of the MySQL installation can be owned by root if you like. The exception is that the data directory and the mysql-files directory must be owned by mysql. To accomplish this, run the following commands as root in the installation directory. For some distribution types, the data directory might be named var rather than data; adjust the second command accordingly.

    shell> chown -R root .
    shell> chown -R mysql data mysql-files
    

    If the plugin directory (the directory named by the plugin_dir system variable) is writable by the server, it may be possible for a user to write executable code to a file in the directory using SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE. This can be prevented by making the plugin directory read only to the server or by setting the secure_file_priv system variable at server startup to a directory where SELECT writes can be performed safely. (For example, set it to the mysql-files directory created earlier.)

  7. To specify options that the MySQL server should use at startup, put them in a /etc/my.cnf or /etc/mysql/my.cnf file. You can use such a file, for example, to set the secure_file_priv system variable. See Section 6.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”. If you do not do this, the server starts with its default settings.

  8. If you want MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, see Section 2.10.5, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

Data directory initialization creates time zone tables in the mysql database but does not populate them. To do so, use the instructions in Section 11.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

2.10.1.1 Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld

This section describes how to initialize the data directory using mysqld, the MySQL server.

Note

The procedure described here is available for all platforms as of MySQL 5.7.6. Prior to 5.7.6, use mysql_install_db on Unix and Unix-like systems (see Section 2.10.1.2, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysql_install_db”). Prior to MySQL 5.7.7, Windows distributions include a data directory with prebuilt tables in the mysql database.

The following instructions assume that your current location is the MySQL installation directory, represented here by BASEDIR:

shell> cd BASEDIR

To initialize the data directory, invoke mysqld with the --initialize or --initialize-insecure option, depending on whether you want the server to generate a random initial password for the 'root'@'localhost' account.

On Windows, use one of these commands:

C:\> bin\mysqld --initialize
C:\> bin\mysqld --initialize-insecure

On Unix and Unix-like systems, it is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this, run mysqld as root and include the --user option as shown here:

shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize-insecure --user=mysql

Otherwise, execute the program while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

Regardless of platform, use --initialize for secure by default installation (that is, including generation of a random initial root password). In this case, the password is marked as expired and you will need to choose a new one. With the --initialize-insecure option, no root password is generated; it is assumed that you will assign a password to the account in timely fashion before putting the server into production use.

It might be necessary to specify other options such as --basedir or --datadir if mysqld does not identify the correct locations for the installation directory or data directory. For example (enter the command on one line):

shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
         --basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql
         --datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data

Alternatively, put the relevant option settings in an option file and pass the name of that file to mysqld. For Unix and Unix-like systems, suppose that the option file name is /opt/mysql/mysql/etc/my.cnf. Put these lines in the file:

[mysqld]
basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql
datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data

Then invoke mysqld as follows (enter the command on a single line with the --defaults-file option first):

shell> bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/opt/mysql/mysql/etc/my.cnf
         --initialize --user=mysql

On Windows, suppose that C:\my.ini contains these lines:

[mysqld]
basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.7
datadir=D:\\MySQLdata

Then invoke mysqld as follows (the --defaults-file option must be first):

C:\> bin/mysqld --defaults-file=C:\my.ini --initialize

When invoked with the --initialize or --initialize-insecure option, mysqld performs the following initialization sequence.

Note

The server writes any messages to its standard error output. This may be redirected to the error log, so look there if you do not see the messages on your screen. For information about the error log, including where it is located, see Section 6.4.2, “The Error Log”.

On Windows, use the --console option to direct messages to the console.

  1. The server checks for the existence of the data directory as follows:

    • If no data directory exists, the server creates it.

    • If a data directory exists and is not empty (that is, it contains files or subdirectories), the server exits after producing an error message:

      [ERROR] --initialize specified but the data directory exists. Aborting.
      

      In this case, remove or rename the data directory and try again.

      As of MySQL 5.7.11, an existing data directory is permitted to be nonempty if every entry either has a name that begins with a period (.) or is named using an --ignore-db-dir option.

  2. Within the data directory, the server creates the mysql system database and its tables, including the grant tables, server-side help tables, and time zone tables. For a complete listing and description of the grant tables, see Section 7.2, “The MySQL Access Privilege System”.

  3. The server initializes the system tablespace and related data structures needed to manage InnoDB tables.

    Note

    After mysqld sets up the InnoDB system tablespace, changes to some tablespace characteristics require setting up a whole new instance. This includes the file name of the first file in the system tablespace and the number of undo logs. If you do not want to use the default values, make sure that the settings for the innodb_data_file_path and innodb_log_file_size configuration parameters are in place in the MySQL configuration file before running mysqld. Also make sure to specify as necessary other parameters that affect the creation and location of InnoDB files, such as innodb_data_home_dir and innodb_log_group_home_dir.

    If those options are in your configuration file but that file is not in a location that MySQL reads by default, specify the file location using the --defaults-extra-file option when you run mysqld.

  4. The server creates a 'root'@'localhost' superuser account. The server's action with respect to a password for this account depends on how you invoke it:

    • With --initialize but not --initialize-insecure, the server generates a random password, marks it as expired, and writes a message displaying the password:

      [Warning] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost:
      iTag*AfrH5ej
      
    • With --initialize-insecure, (either with or without --initialize because --initialize-insecure implies --initialize), the server does not generate a password or mark it expired, and writes a warning message:

      Warning] root@localhost is created with an empty password ! Please
      consider switching off the --initialize-insecure option.
      
  5. The server populates the server-side help tables if content is available (in the fill_help_tables.sql file). The server does not populate the time zone tables; to do so, see Section 11.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

  6. If the --init-file option was given to name a file of SQL statements, the server executes the statements in the file. This option enables you to perform custom bootstrapping sequences.

    When the server operates in bootstrap mode, some functionality is unavailable that limits the statements permitted in the file. These include statements that relate to account management (such as CREATE USER or GRANT), replication, and global transaction identifiers.

  7. The server exits.

After you initialize the data directory by starting the server with --initialize or --initialize-insecure, start the server normally (that is, without either of those options) and assign the 'root'@'localhost' account a new password:

  1. Start the server. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Starting the Server”.

  2. Connect to the server:

    • If you used --initialize but not --initialize-insecure to initialize the data directory, connect to the server as root using the random password that the server generated during the initialization sequence:

      shell> mysql -u root -p
      Enter password: (enter the random root password here)
      

      Look in the server error log if you do not know this password.

    • If you used --initialize-insecure to initialize the data directory, connect to the server as root without a password:

      shell> mysql -u root --skip-password
      
  3. After connecting, assign a new root password:

    mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'new_password';
    
Note

The data directory initialization sequence performed by the server does not substitute for the actions performed by mysql_secure_installation or mysql_ssl_rsa_setup. See Section 5.4.4, “mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security”, and Section 5.4.5, “mysql_ssl_rsa_setup — Create SSL/RSA Files”.

2.10.1.2 Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysql_install_db

This section describes how to initialize the data directory using mysql_install_db.

Note

The procedure described here is used on Unix and Unix-like systems prior to MySQL 5.7.6. (For Windows, MySQL distributions include a data directory with prebuilt tables in the mysql database.) As of MySQL 5.7.6, mysql_install_db is deprecated. To initialize the data directory, use the procedure described at Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld”.

The following instructions assume that your current location is the MySQL installation directory, represented here by BASEDIR:

shell> cd BASEDIR

To initialize the data directory, invoke mysql_install_db. This program might be located under the base directory in either bin or scripts, depending on your version of MySQL. If it is in scripts, adjust the following commands appropriately.

shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

It is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this, run mysql_install_db as root and include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, execute the program while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

The mysql_install_db command creates the server's data directory. Under the data directory, it creates directories for the mysql database that holds the grant tables and (prior to MySQL 5.7.4) a test database that you can use to test MySQL. The program also creates privilege table entries for the initial account or accounts. For a complete listing and description of the grant tables, see Section 7.2, “The MySQL Access Privilege System”.

It might be necessary to specify other options such as --basedir or --datadir if mysql_install_db does not identify the correct locations for the installation directory or data directory. For example:

shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql \
         --basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql \
         --datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data

If mysql_install_db generates a random password for the root account, start the server and assign a new password:

  1. Start the server (use the first command if your installation includes mysqld_safe, the second it if includes systemd support):

    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
    shell> systemctl start mysqld
    

    Substitute the appropriate service name if it differs from mysqld; for example, mysql on SLES systems.

  2. Look in the $HOME/.mysql_secret file to find the random password that mysql_install_db wrote there. Then connect to the server as root using that password:

    shell> mysql -u root -h 127.0.0.1 -p
    Enter password: (enter the random password here)
    
  3. After connecting, assign a new root password:

    mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('new_password');
    

    After resetting the password, remove the .mysql_secret file; otherwise, if you run mysql_secure_installation, that command may see the file and expire the root password again as part of ensuring secure deployment.

If mysql_install_db did not generate a random password, you should still assign one. For instructions, see Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”. That section also describes how to remove the test database, if mysql_install_db created one and you do not want it.

If you have trouble with mysql_install_db at this point, see Section 2.10.1.3, “Problems Running mysql_install_db”.

2.10.1.3 Problems Running mysql_install_db

The purpose of the mysql_install_db program is to initialize the data directory, including the tables in the mysql system database. It does not overwrite existing MySQL privilege tables, and it does not affect any other data.

To re-create your privilege tables, first stop the mysqld server if it is running. Then rename the mysql directory under the data directory to save it, and run mysql_install_db. Suppose that your current directory is the MySQL installation directory and that mysql_install_db is located in the bin directory and the data directory is named data. To rename the mysql database and re-run mysql_install_db, use these commands.

shell> mv data/mysql data/mysql.old
shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

When you run mysql_install_db, you might encounter the following problems:

  • mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables

    You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:

    Starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
    mysqld ended
    

    In this case, you should examine the error log file very carefully. The log should be located in the directory XXXXXX named by the error message and should indicate why mysqld did not start. If you do not understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report. See Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

  • There is a mysqld process running

    This indicates that the server is running, in which case the grant tables have probably been created already. If so, there is no need to run mysql_install_db at all because it needs to be run only once, when you first install MySQL.

  • Installing a second mysqld server does not work when one server is running

    This can happen when you have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different location. For example, you might have a production installation, but you want to create a second installation for testing purposes. Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run a second server is that it tries to use a network interface that is in use by the first server. In this case, you should see one of the following error messages:

    Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port:
    Address already in use
    Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...
    

    For instructions on setting up multiple servers, see Section 6.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

  • You do not have write access to the /tmp directory

    If you do not have write access to create temporary files or a Unix socket file in the default location (the /tmp directory) or the TMPDIR environment variable, if it has been set, an error occurs when you run mysql_install_db or the mysqld server.

    You can specify different locations for the temporary directory and Unix socket file by executing these commands prior to starting mysql_install_db or mysqld, where some_tmp_dir is the full path name to some directory for which you have write permission:

    shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
    shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysql.sock
    shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
    

    Then you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:

    shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
    

    See Section B.5.3.6, “How to Protect or Change the MySQL Unix Socket File”, and Section 5.9, “MySQL Program Environment Variables”.

There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db program provided in the MySQL distribution:

  • If you want the initial privileges to be different from the standard defaults, use account-management statements such as CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE to change the privileges after the grant tables have been set up. In other words, run mysql_install_db, and then use mysql -u root mysql to connect to the server as the MySQL root user so that you can issue the necessary statements. (See Section 14.7.1, “Account Management Statements”.)

    To install MySQL on several machines with the same privileges, put the CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE statements in a file and execute the file as a script using mysql after running mysql_install_db. For example:

    shell> bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> bin/mysql -u root < your_script_file
    

    This enables you to avoid issuing the statements manually on each machine.

  • It is possible to re-create the grant tables completely after they have previously been created. You might want to do this if you are just learning how to use CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE and have made so many modifications after running mysql_install_db that you want to wipe out the tables and start over.

    To re-create the grant tables, stop the server if it is running and remove the mysql database directory. Then run mysql_install_db again.

2.10.2 Starting the Server

This section describes how start the server on Unix and Unix-like systems. (For Windows, see Section 2.3.5.5, “Starting the Server for the First Time”.) For some suggested commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly, see Section 2.10.3, “Testing the Server”.

Start the MySQL server like this if your installation includes mysqld_safe:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
Note

For Linux systems on which MySQL is installed using RPM packages, server startup and shutdown is managed using systemd rather than mysqld_safe, and mysqld_safe is no longer installed.

Start the server like this if your installation includes systemd support:

shell> systemctl start mysqld

Substitute the appropriate service name if it differs from mysqld; for example, mysql on SLES systems.

It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this, run mysqld_safe as root and include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, you should execute the program while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

For further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user, see Section 7.1.5, “How to Run MySQL as a Normal User”.

If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, look for information in the error log (which by default is the host_name.err file in the data directory).

If the server is unable to access the data directory it starts or read the grant tables in the mysql database, it writes a message to its error log. Such problems can occur if you neglected to create the grant tables by initializing the data directory before proceeding to this step, or if you ran the command that initializes the data directory without the --user option. Remove the data directory and run the command with the --user option.

If you have other problems starting the server, see Section 2.10.2.1, “Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server”. For more information about mysqld_safe, see Section 5.3.2, “mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script”. For more information about systemd support, see Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

2.10.2.1 Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server

This section provides troubleshooting suggestions for problems starting the server. For additional suggestions for Windows systems, see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

If you have problems starting the server, here are some things to try:

  • Check the error log to see why the server does not start. Log files are located in the data directory (typically C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\data on Windows, /usr/local/mysql/data for a Unix/Linux binary distribution, and /usr/local/var for a Unix/Linux source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form host_name.err and host_name.log, where host_name is the name of your server host. Then examine the last few lines of these files. Use tail to display them:

    shell> tail host_name.err
    shell> tail host_name.log
    
  • Specify any special options needed by the storage engines you are using. You can create a my.cnf file and specify startup options for the engines that you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, NDB), be sure that you have them configured the way you want before starting the server. If you are using InnoDB tables, see Section 15.6, “InnoDB Configuration” for guidelines and Section 15.14, “InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables” for option syntax.

    Although storage engines use default values for options that you omit, Oracle recommends that you review the available options and specify explicit values for any options whose defaults are not appropriate for your installation.

  • Make sure that the server knows where to find the data directory. The mysqld server uses this directory as its current directory. This is where it expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. The server also writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.

    The default data directory location is hardcoded when the server is compiled. To determine what the default path settings are, invoke mysqld with the --verbose and --help options. If the data directory is located somewhere else on your system, specify that location with the --datadir option to mysqld or mysqld_safe, on the command line or in an option file. Otherwise, the server will not work properly. As an alternative to the --datadir option, you can specify mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is installed with the --basedir, and mysqld looks for the data directory there.

    To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location into the directory where mysqld is installed and then run the following command, it shows the effect of starting the server with a base directory of /usr/local:

    shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help
    

    You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but --verbose and --help must be the last options.

    Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and --help.

    If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

    shell> mysqladmin variables
    

    Or:

    shell> mysqladmin -h host_name variables
    

    host_name is the name of the MySQL server host.

  • Make sure that the server can access the data directory. The ownership and permissions of the data directory and its contents must allow the server to read and modify them.

    If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means that the privileges of the data directory or its contents do not permit server access. In this case, you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this raises security issues and should be avoided.

    Change location into the data directory and check the ownership of the data directory and its contents to make sure the server has access. For example, if the data directory is /usr/local/mysql/var, use this command:

    shell> ls -la /usr/local/mysql/var
    

    If the data directory or its files or subdirectories are not owned by the login account that you use for running the server, change their ownership to that account. If the account is named mysql, use these commands:

    shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
    shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
    

    Even with correct ownership, MySQL might fail to start up if there is other security software running on your system that manages application access to various parts of the file system. In this case, reconfigure that software to enable mysqld to access the directories it uses during normal operation.

  • Verify that the network interfaces the server wants to use are available.

    If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another mysqld server) is using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying to use:

    Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
    Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...
    

    Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in Section 6.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.)

    If no other server is running, execute the command telnet your_host_name tcp_ip_port_number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of times. If you do not get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying to use. Track down what program this is and disable it, or tell mysqld to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, specify the same non-default port number for client programs when connecting to the server using TCP/IP.

    Another reason the port might be inaccessible is that you have a firewall running that blocks connections to it. If so, modify the firewall settings to permit access to the port.

    If the server starts but you cannot connect to it, make sure that you have an entry in /etc/hosts that looks like this:

    127.0.0.1       localhost
    
  • If you cannot get mysqld to start, try to make a trace file to find the problem by using the --debug option. See Section 27.5.3, “The DBUG Package”.

2.10.3 Testing the Server

After the data directory is initialized and you have started the server, perform some simple tests to make sure that it works satisfactorily. This section assumes that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your shell (command interpreter) to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 5.2.10, “Setting Environment Variables”.

Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:

shell> bin/mysqladmin version
shell> bin/mysqladmin variables

If you cannot connect to the server, specify a -u root option to connect as root. If you have assigned a password for the root account already, you'll also need to specify -p on the command line and enter the password when prompted. For example:

shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root -p version
Enter password: (enter root password here)

The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:

shell> bin/mysqladmin version
mysqladmin  Ver 14.12 Distrib 5.7.18, for pc-linux-gnu on i686
...

Server version          5.7.18
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
Uptime:                 14 days 5 hours 5 min 21 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 366  Slow queries: 0
Opens: 0  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 19
Queries per second avg: 0.000

To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.

Verify that you can shut down the server (include a -p option if the root account has a password already):

shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown

Verify that you can start the server again. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:

shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

If mysqld_safe fails, see Section 2.10.2.1, “Troubleshooting Problems Starting the MySQL Server”.

Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

shell> bin/mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include the minimum of mysql and information_schema.

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| engine_cost               |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| gtid_executed             |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| innodb_index_stats        |
| innodb_table_stats        |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| server_cost               |
| servers                   |
| slave_master_info         |
| slave_relay_log_info      |
| slave_worker_info         |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | mysql_native_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+

At this point, your server is running and you can access it. To tighten security if you have not yet assigned a password to the initial account, follow the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

For more information about mysql, mysqladmin, and mysqlshow, see Section 5.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool”, Section 5.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”, and Section 5.5.8, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts

The MySQL installation process involves initializing the data directory, including the mysql database containing the grant tables that define MySQL accounts. For details, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

This section describes how to assign passwords to the initial accounts created during the MySQL installation procedure, if you have not already done so.

Note

On Windows, you can also perform the process described in this section during installation with MySQL Installer (see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”). On all platforms, the MySQL distribution includes mysql_secure_installation, a command-line utility that automates much of the process of securing a MySQL installation. MySQL Workbench is available on all platforms, and also offers the ability to manage user accounts (see Chapter 29, MySQL Workbench ).

Passwords may have already been assigned under these circumstances:

The mysql.user grant table defines the initial MySQL user accounts and their access privileges. Current versions of MySQL 5.7 create only a 'root'@'localhost' account, but for earlier versions, there might be multiple accounts such as described here:

  • Some accounts have the user name root. These are superuser accounts that have all privileges and can do anything. If these root accounts have empty passwords, anyone can connect to the MySQL server as root without a password and be granted all privileges.

    • On Windows, root accounts are created that permit connections from the local host only. Connections can be made by specifying the host name localhost, the IP address 127.0.0.1, or the IPv6 address ::1. If the user selects the Enable root access from remote machines option during installation, the Windows installer creates another root account that permits connections from any host.

    • On Unix, each root account permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying the host name localhost, the IP address 127.0.0.1, the IPv6 address ::1, or the actual host name or IP address.

    • The 'root'@'localhost' account also has a row in the mysql.proxies_priv table that enables granting the PROXY privilege for ''@'', that is, for all users and all hosts. This enables root to set up proxy users, as well as to delegate to other accounts the authority to set up proxy users. See Section 7.3.9, “Proxy Users”.

  • If accounts for anonymous users were created, these have an empty user name. The anonymous accounts have no password, so anyone can use them to connect to the MySQL server.

    • On Windows, there is one anonymous account that permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying a host name of localhost.

    • On Unix, each anonymous account permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying a host name of localhost for one of the accounts, or the actual host name or IP address for the other.

Checking Which Accounts Exist

Start the server if it is not running. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Starting the Server”.

Assuming that no root password has been assigned, you should be able to connect to the server as root without one:

shell> mysql -u root

Once connected, determine which accounts exist in the mysql.user table and whether their passwords are empty:

  • As of MySQL 5.7.6, use this statement:

    mysql> SELECT User, Host, HEX(authentication_string) FROM mysql.user;
    

    The statement uses HEX() because passwords stored in the authentication_string column might contain binary data that does not display well.

  • Before MySQL 5.7.6, use this statement:

    mysql> SELECT User, Host, Password FROM mysql.user;
    

The SELECT statement results can vary depending on your version of MySQL and installation method. The following example output includes several root and anonymous-user accounts, none of which have passwords:

+------+--------------------+----------+
| User | Host               | Password |
+------+--------------------+----------+
| root | localhost          |          |
| root | myhost.example.com |          |
| root | 127.0.0.1          |          |
| root | ::1                |          |
|      | localhost          |          |
|      | myhost.example.com |          |
+------+--------------------+----------+

If the output on your system shows any accounts with empty passwords, your MySQL installation is unprotected until you do something about it:

  • Assign a password to each MySQL root account that does not have one.

  • To prevent clients from connecting as anonymous users without a password, either assign a password to each anonymous account or remove the accounts.

In addition, some installation methods create a test database and add rows to the mysql.db table that permit all accounts to access that database and other databases with names that start with test_. This is true even for accounts that otherwise have no special privileges such as the default anonymous accounts. This is convenient for testing but inadvisable on production servers. Administrators who want database access restricted only to accounts that have permissions granted explicitly for that purpose should remove these mysql.db table rows.

The following instructions describe how to set up passwords for the initial MySQL accounts, first for any root accounts, then for anonymous accounts. The instructions also cover how to remove anonymous accounts, should you prefer not to permit anonymous access at all, and describe how to remove permissive access to test databases.

Replace new_password in the examples with the password that you want to use. Replace host_name with the name of the server host. You can determine this name from the output of the SELECT statement shown earlier. For the output shown, host_name is myhost.example.com.

Note

For additional information about setting passwords, see Section 7.3.5, “Assigning Account Passwords”. If you forget your root password after setting it, see Section B.5.3.2, “How to Reset the Root Password”.

To set up additional accounts, see Section 7.3.2, “Adding User Accounts”.

You might want to defer setting the passwords until later, to avoid the need to specify them while you perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set them before using your installation for production purposes.

Assigning root Account Passwords

To assign a password to an account, connect to the server as root using the mysql client and issue the appropriate SQL statement:

  • As of MySQL 5.7.6, use ALTER USER:

    mysql> ALTER USER user IDENTIFIED BY 'new_password';
    
  • Before 5.7.6, use SET PASSWORD:

    mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR user = PASSWORD('new_password');
    

The following instructions use ALTER USER. If your version of MySQL is older than 5.7.6, substitute equivalent SET PASSWORD statements.

To assign the 'root'@'localhost' account a password, connect to the server as root:

shell> mysql -u root

Then issue an ALTER USER statement:

mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'new_password';

Issue a similar ALTER USER statement for any other root account present in your mysql.user table that has no password. (Vary the host name appropriately.)

After an account has been assigned a password, you must supply that password whenever you connect to the server using the account. For example, to shut down the server with mysqladmin, use this command:

shell> mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
Enter password: (enter root password here)

The mysql commands in the following instructions include a -p option based on the assumption that you have assigned the root account password using the preceding instructions and must specify that password when connecting to the server.

Assigning Anonymous Account Passwords

In MySQL 5.7, installation methods that create anonymous accounts tend to be for early versions for which ALTER USER cannot be used to assign passwords. Consequently, the instructions in this section use SET PASSWORD.

To assign the ''@'localhost' anonymous account a password, connect to the server as root:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)

Then issue a SET PASSWORD statement:

mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('new_password');

Issue a similar SET PASSWORD statement for any other anonymous account present in your mysql.user table that has no password. (Vary the host name appropriately.)

Removing Anonymous Accounts

If you prefer to remove any anonymous accounts rather than assigning them passwords, use DROP USER. To drop the ''@'localhost' account, connect to the server as root:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)

Then issue a DROP USER statement:

mysql> DROP USER ''@'localhost';

Issue a similar DROP USER statement for any other anonymous account that you want to drop. (Vary the host name appropriately.)

Securing Test Databases

Some installation methods create a test database and set up privileges for accessing it. If that is true on your system, the mysql.db table will contain rows that permit access by any user to the test database and other databases with names that start with test_. (These rows have an empty User column value, which for access-checking purposes matches any user name.) This means that such databases can be used even by accounts that otherwise possess no privileges. If you want to remove any-user access to test databases, do so as follows:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.db WHERE Db LIKE 'test%';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the privilege change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

With the preceding change, only users who have global database privileges or privileges granted explicitly for the test database can use it. However, if you prefer that the database not exist at all, drop it:

mysql> DROP DATABASE test;

2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

This section discusses methods for starting and stopping the MySQL server.

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

systemd, the mysqld_safe and mysql.server scripts, Solaris/OpenSolaris SMF, and the OS X Startup Item (or MySQL Preference Pane) can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. systemd, mysql.server, and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.

The following table shows which option groups the server and startup scripts read from option files.

Table 2.12 MySQL Startup Scripts and Supported Server Option Groups

ScriptOption Groups
mysqld[mysqld], [server], [mysqld-major_version]
mysqld_safe[mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe]
mysql.server[mysqld], [mysql.server], [server]

[mysqld-major_version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-5.6] and [mysqld-5.7] are read by servers having versions 5.6.x, 5.7.x, and so forth. This feature can be used to specify options that can be read only by servers within a given release series.

For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. To be current, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead.

For more information on MySQL configuration files and their structure and contents, see Section 5.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

2.11 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL

This section describes the steps to upgrade or downgrade a MySQL installation.

Upgrading is a common procedure, as you pick up bug fixes within the same MySQL release series or significant features between major MySQL releases. You perform this procedure first on some test systems to make sure everything works smoothly, and then on the production systems.

Downgrading is less common. Typically, you undo an upgrade because of some compatibility or performance issue that occurs on a production system, and was not uncovered during initial upgrade verification on the test systems. As with the upgrade procedure, perform and verify the downgrade procedure on some test systems first, before using it on a production system.

2.11.1 Upgrading MySQL

This section describes how to upgrade to a new MySQL version.

Note

In the following discussion, MySQL commands that must be run using a MySQL account with administrative privileges include -u root on the command line to specify the MySQL root user. Commands that require a password for root also include a -p option. Because -p is followed by no option value, such commands prompt for the password. Type the password when prompted and press Enter.

SQL statements can be executed using the mysql command-line client (connect as root to ensure that you have the necessary privileges).

Supported Upgrade Methods

Supported upgrade methods include:

  • In-Place Upgrade: Involves shutting down the old MySQL version, replacing the old MySQL binaries or packages with the new ones, restarting MySQL on the existing data directory, and running mysql_upgrade.

  • Logical Upgrade: Involves exporting existing data from the old MySQL version using mysqldump, installing the new MySQL version, loading the dump file into the new MySQL version, and running mysql_upgrade.

For in-place and logical upgrade procedures, see Performing an In-Place Upgrade, and Performing a Logical Upgrade.

If you run MySQL Server on Windows, refer to the upgrade procedure described in Section 2.3.8, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”.

If your current MySQL installation was installed on an Enterprise Linux platform or Fedora using the MySQL Yum Repository, see Section 2.11.1.2, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository”.

If your current MySQL installation was installed on Ubuntu using the MySQL APT repository, see Section 2.11.1.3, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository”.

Supported Upgrade Paths

Unless otherwise documented, the following upgrade paths are supported:

  • Upgrading from a release series version to a newer release series version is supported. For example, upgrading from 5.7.9 to 5.7.10 is supported. Skipping release series versions is also supported. For example, upgrading from 5.7.9 to 5.7.11 is supported.

  • Upgrading one release level is supported. For example, upgrading from 5.6 to 5.7 is supported. Upgrading to the latest release series version is recommended before upgrading to the next release level. For example, upgrade to the latest 5.6 release before upgrading to 5.7.

  • Upgrading more than one release level is supported, but only if you upgrade one release level at a time. For example, if you currently are running MySQL 5.5 and wish to upgrade to a newer series, upgrade to MySQL 5.6 first before upgrading to MySQL 5.7, and so forth. For information on upgrading to MySQL 5.6 see the MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual.

  • Direct upgrades that skip a release level (for example, upgrading directly from MySQL 5.5 to 5.7) are not recommended or supported.

The following conditions apply to all upgrade paths:

  • Upgrades between General Availability (GA) status releases are supported.

  • Upgrades between milestone releases (or from a milestone release to a GA release) are not supported. For example, upgrading from 5.7.7 to 5.7.8 is not supported, as neither are GA status releases.

  • For upgrades between versions of a MySQL release series that has reached GA status, you can move the MySQL format files and data files between different versions on systems with the same architecture. This is not necessarily true for upgrades between milestone releases. Use of milestone releases is at your own risk.

Before You Begin

Before upgrading, review the following information and perform the recommended steps:

  • Before upgrading, protect your data by creating a backup of your current databases and log files. The backup should include the mysql system database, which contains the MySQL system tables. See Section 8.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  • Review the Release Notes which provide information about features that are new in the MySQL 5.7 or differ from those found in earlier MySQL releases. Some of these changes may result in incompatibilities.

    For listings of MySQL server variables and options that have been added, deprecated, or removed in MySQL 5.7, see Section 1.5, “Server and Status Variables and Options Added, Deprecated, or Removed in MySQL 5.7”. If you use any of these items, an upgrade requires configuration changes.

  • Review Section 2.11.1.1, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7”. This section describes changes that may require action before or after upgrading.

  • Check Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”, to see whether changes to table formats or to character sets or collations were made between your current version of MySQL and the version to which you are upgrading. If such changes have resulted in an incompatibility between MySQL versions, you will need to upgrade the affected tables using the instructions in Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

  • If you use replication, review Section 18.4.3, “Upgrading a Replication Setup”.

  • If you use XA transactions with InnoDB, run XA RECOVER before upgrading to check for uncommitted XA transactions. If results are returned, either commit or rollback the XA transactions by issuing an XA COMMIT or XA ROLLBACK statement.

  • If your MySQL installation contains a large amount of data that might take a long time to convert after an in-place upgrade, you might find it useful to create a dummy database instance for assessing what conversions might be needed and the work involved to perform them. Make a copy of your MySQL instance that contains a full copy of the mysql database, plus all other databases without data. Run your upgrade procedure on this dummy instance to see what actions might be needed so that you can better evaluate the work involved when performing actual data conversion on your original database instance.

  • Rebuilding and reinstalling MySQL language interfaces is recommended whenever you install or upgrade to a new release of MySQL. This applies to MySQL interfaces such as PHP mysql extensions, the Perl DBD::mysql module, and the Python MySQLdb module.

Performing an In-Place Upgrade

This section describes how to perform an in-place upgrade. Review Before you Begin before proceeding.

Note

If you upgrade an installation originally produced by installing multiple RPM packages, upgrade all the packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

For Linux systems on which MySQL is installed using RPM packages, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd, and mysqld_safe is not installed. If you installed MySQL on a Linux system using RPM packages, use systemd for server startup and shutdown instead of the methods used in the following instructions. See Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

To perform an in-place upgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.1.1, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7” for steps to be performed before upgrading.

  2. Configure MySQL to perform a slow shutdown by setting innodb_fast_shutdown to 0. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --execute="SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown=0"
    

    With a slow shutdown, InnoDB performs a full purge and change buffer merge before shutting down, which ensures that data files are fully prepared in case of file format differences between releases.

  3. Shut down the old MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Upgrade the MySQL binaries or packages in place (replace the old binaries or packages with the new ones).

    Note

    For supported Linux distributions, the preferred method for replacing the MySQL packages is to use the MySQL software repositories; see Section 2.11.1.2, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository”, Section 2.11.1.3, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository”, or Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL SLES Repository for instructions.

  5. Start the MySQL 5.7 server, using the existing data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    
  6. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    

    mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the mysql system database so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities.

    Note

    mysql_upgrade should not be used when the server is running with --gtid-mode=ON. See GTID mode and mysql_upgrade for more information.

    mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 6.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

  7. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    

Performing a Logical Upgrade

This section describes how to perform a logical upgrade. Review Before you Begin before proceeding.

Note

For Linux systems on which MySQL is installed using RPM packages, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd, and mysqld_safe is not installed. If you installed MySQL on a Linux system using RPM packages, use systemd for server startup and shutdown instead of the methods used in the following instructions. See Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

To perform a logical upgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.1.1, “Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7” for steps to be performed before upgrading.

  2. Export your existing data from the previous MySQL version:

    mysqldump -u root -p
      --add-drop-table --routines --events
      --all-databases --force > data-for-upgrade.sql
    
    Note

    Use the --routines and --events options with mysqldump (as shown above) if your databases include stored programs. The --all-databases option includes all databases in the dump, including the mysql database that holds the system tables.

    Important

    If you have tables that contain generated columns, use the mysqldump utility provided with MySQL 5.7.9 or higher to create your dump files. The mysqldump utility provided in earlier releases uses incorrect syntax for generated column definitions (Bug #20769542). You can use the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS table to identify tables with generated columns.

  3. Shut down the old MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Install MySQL 5.7. For installation instructions, see Chapter 2, Installing and Upgrading MySQL.

  5. Initialize a new data directory, as described at Section 2.10.1, “Initializing the Data Directory”. For example:

    mysqld --initialize --datadir=/path/to/5.7-datadir
    

    Copy the temporary 'root'@'localhost' password displayed to your screen or written to your error log for later use.

  6. Start the MySQL 5.7 server, using the new data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/5.7-datadir
    
  7. Reset the root password:

    shell> mysql -u root -p
    Enter password: ****  <- enter temporary root password
    mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'your new password';
    
  8. Load the previously created dump file into the new MySQL server. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --force < data-for-upgrade.sql
    
  9. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    

    mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the mysql system database so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities.

    Note

    mysql_upgrade should not be used when the server is running with --gtid-mode=ON. See GTID mode and mysql_upgrade for more information.

    mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 6.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

  10. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/5.7-datadir
    

Upgrade Troubleshooting

  • If problems occur, such as that the new mysqld server does not start, verify that you do not have an old my.cnf file from your previous installation. You can check this with the --print-defaults option (for example, mysqld --print-defaults). If this command displays anything other than the program name, you have an active my.cnf file that affects server or client operation.

  • If, after an upgrade, you experience problems with compiled client programs, such as Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used old header or library files when compiling your programs. In this case, check the date for your mysql.h file and libmysqlclient.a library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, recompile your programs with the new headers and libraries. Recompilation might also be necessary for programs compiled against the shared client library if the library major version number has changed (for example, from libmysqlclient.so.15 to libmysqlclient.so.16).

  • If you have created a user-defined function (UDF) with a given name and upgrade MySQL to a version that implements a new built-in function with the same name, the UDF becomes inaccessible. To correct this, use DROP FUNCTION to drop the UDF, and then use CREATE FUNCTION to re-create the UDF with a different nonconflicting name. The same is true if the new version of MySQL implements a built-in function with the same name as an existing stored function. See Section 10.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”, for the rules describing how the server interprets references to different kinds of functions.

2.11.1.1 Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.7

Before upgrading to MySQL 5.7, review the changes described in this section to identify upgrade issues that apply to your current MySQL installation and applications.

Note

In addition to the changes outlined in this section, review the Release Notes and other important information outlined in Before You Begin.

Changes marked as either Known issue or Incompatible change are incompatibilities with earlier versions of MySQL, and may require your attention before you upgrade. Our aim is to avoid these changes, but occasionally they are necessary to correct problems that would be worse than an incompatibility between releases. If any upgrade issue applicable to your installation involves an incompatibility that requires special handling, follow the instructions given in the incompatibility description. Sometimes this involves dumping and reloading tables, or use of a statement such as CHECK TABLE or REPAIR TABLE.

For dump and reload instructions, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”. Any procedure that involves REPAIR TABLE with the USE_FRM option must be done before upgrading. Use of this statement with a version of MySQL different from the one used to create the table (that is, using it after upgrading) may damage the table. See Section 14.7.2.5, “REPAIR TABLE Syntax”.

Configuration Changes
System Table Changes
  • Incompatible change: The Password column of the mysql.user table was removed in MySQL 5.7.6. All credentials are stored in the authentication_string column, including those formerly stored in the Password column. If performing an in-place upgrade to MySQL 5.7.6 or later, run mysql_upgrade as directed by the in-place upgrade procedure to migrate the Password column contents to the authentication_string column.

    If performing a logical upgrade using a mysqldump dump file from a pre-5.7.6 MySQL installation, you must observe these conditions for the mysqldump command used to generate the dump file:

    As outlined in the logical upgrade procedure, load the pre-5.7.6 dump file into the 5.7.6 (or later) server before running mysql_upgrade.

Server Changes
  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.7.5, support for passwords that use the older pre-4.1 password hashing format is removed, which involves the following changes. Applications that use any feature no longer supported must be modified.

    • The mysql_old_password authentication plugin is removed. Accounts that use this plugin are disabled at startup and the server writes an unknown plugin message to the error log. For instructions on upgrading accounts that use this plugin, see Section 7.5.1.3, “Migrating Away from Pre-4.1 Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin”.

    • The --secure-auth option to the server and client programs is the default, but is now a no-op. It is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release.

    • The --skip-secure-auth option to the server and client programs is no longer supported and using it produces an error.

    • The secure_auth system variable permits only a value of 1; a value of 0 is no longer permitted.

    • For the old_passwords system variable, a value of 1 (produce pre-4.1 hashes) is no longer permitted.

    • The OLD_PASSWORD() function is removed.

  • Incompatible change: In MySQL 5.6.6, the YEAR(2) data type was deprecated. In MySQL 5.7.5, support for YEAR(2) is removed. Once you upgrade to MySQL 5.7.5 or higher, any remaining YEAR(2) columns must be converted to YEAR(4) to become usable again. For conversion strategies, see Section 12.3.4, “YEAR(2) Limitations and Migrating to YEAR(4)”. Running mysql_upgrade after upgrading is one of the possible conversion strategies.

  • As of MySQL 5.7.7, CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE reports a table as needing a rebuild if it contains old temporal columns in pre-5.6.4 format (TIME, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP columns without support for fractional seconds precision) and the avoid_temporal_upgrade system variable is disabled. This helps mysql_upgrade to detect and upgrade tables containing old temporal columns. If avoid_temporal_upgrade is enabled, FOR UPGRADE ignores the old temporal columns present in the table; consequently, mysql_upgrade does not upgrade them.

    As of MySQL 5.7.7, REPAIR TABLE upgrades a table if it contains old temporal columns in pre-5.6.4 format and the avoid_temporal_upgrade system variable is disabled. If avoid_temporal_upgrade is enabled, REPAIR TABLE ignores the old temporal columns present in the table and does not upgrade them.

    To check for tables that contain such temporal columns and need a rebuild, disable avoid_temporal_upgrade before executing CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE.

    To upgrade tables that contain such temporal columns, disable avoid_temporal_upgrade before executing REPAIR TABLE or mysql_upgrade.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.7.2, the server requires account rows in the mysql.user table to have a nonempty plugin column value and disables accounts with an empty value. This requires that you upgrade your mysql.user table to fill in all plugin values. As of MySQL 5.7.6, use this procedure:

    If you plan to upgrade using the data directory from your existing MySQL installation:

    1. Stop the old (MySQL 5.6) server

    2. Upgrade the MySQL binaries in place by replacing the old binaries with the new ones

    3. Start the MySQL 5.7 server normally (no special options)

    4. Run mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables

    5. Restart the MySQL 5.7 server

    If you plan to upgrade by reloading a dump file generated from your existing MySQL installation:

    1. To generate the dump file, run mysqldump with the --add-drop-table option and without the --flush-privileges option

    2. Stop the old (MySQL 5.6) server

    3. Upgrade the MySQL binaries in place (replace the old binaries with the new ones)

    4. Start the MySQL 5.7 server normally (no special options)

    5. Reload the dump file (mysql < dump_file)

    6. Run mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables

    7. Restart the MySQL 5.7 server

    Before MySQL 5.7.6, the procedure is more involved:

    If you plan to upgrade using the data directory from your existing MySQL installation:

    1. Stop the old (MySQL 5.6) server

    2. Upgrade the MySQL binaries in place (replace the old binaries with the new ones)

    3. Restart the server with the --skip-grant-tables option to disable privilege checking

    4. Run mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables

    5. Restart the server normally (without --skip-grant-tables)

    If you plan to upgrade by reloading a dump file generated from your existing MySQL installation:

    1. To generate the dump file, run mysqldump without the --flush-privileges option

    2. Stop the old (MySQL 5.6) server

    3. Upgrade the MySQL binaries in place (replace the old binaries with the new ones)

    4. Restart the server with the --skip-grant-tables option to disable privilege checking

    5. Reload the dump file (mysql < dump_file)

    6. Run mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables

    7. Restart the server normally (without --skip-grant-tables)

    mysql_upgrade runs by default as the MySQL root user. For the preceding procedures, if the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again:

    shell> mysql -u root -p
    Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
    mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password'; # MySQL 5.7.6 and up
    mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');        # Before MySQL 5.7.6
    mysql> quit
    
    shell> mysql_upgrade -p
    Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
    

    The password-resetting statement normally does not work if the server is started with --skip-grant-tables, but the first invocation of mysql_upgrade flushes the privileges, so when you run mysql, the statement is accepted.

    If mysql_upgrade itself expires the root password, you will need to reset it password again in the same manner.

    After following the preceding instructions, DBAs are advised also to convert accounts that use the mysql_old_password authentication plugin to use mysql_native_password instead, because support for mysql_old_password has been removed. For account upgrade instructions, see Section 7.5.1.3, “Migrating Away from Pre-4.1 Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin”.

  • Incompatible change: It is possible for a column DEFAULT value to be valid for the sql_mode value at table-creation time but invalid for the sql_mode value when rows are inserted or updated. Example:

    SET sql_mode = '';
    CREATE TABLE t (d DATE DEFAULT 0);
    SET sql_mode = 'NO_ZERO_DATE,STRICT_ALL_TABLES';
    INSERT INTO t (d) VALUES(DEFAULT);
    

    In this case, 0 should be accepted for the CREATE TABLE but rejected for the INSERT. However, previously the server did not evaluate DEFAULT values used for inserts or updates against the current sql_mode. In the example, the INSERT succeeds and inserts '0000-00-00' into the DATE column.

    As of MySQL 5.7.2, the server applies the proper sql_mode checks to generate a warning or error at insert or update time.

    A resulting incompatibility for replication if you use statement-based logging (binlog_format=STATEMENT) is that if a slave is upgraded, a nonupgraded master will execute the preceding example without error, whereas the INSERT will fail on the slave and replication will stop.

    To deal with this, stop all new statements on the master and wait until the slaves catch up. Then upgrade the slaves followed by the master. Alternatively, if you cannot stop new statements, temporarily change to row-based logging on the master (binlog_format=ROW) and wait until all slaves have processed all binary logs produced up to the point of this change. Then upgrade the slaves followed by the master and change the master back to statement-based logging.

  • Incompatible change: Several changes were made to the audit log plugin for better compatibility with Oracle Audit Vault. For upgrading purpose, the main issue is that the default format of the audit log file has changed: Information within <AUDIT_RECORD> elements previously written using attributes now is written using subelements.

    Example of old <AUDIT_RECORD> format:

    <AUDIT_RECORD
     TIMESTAMP="2013-04-15T15:27:27"
     NAME="Query"
     CONNECTION_ID="3"
     STATUS="0"
     SQLTEXT="SELECT 1"
    />
    

    Example of new format:

    <AUDIT_RECORD>
     <TIMESTAMP>2013-04-15T15:27:27 UTC</TIMESTAMP>
     <RECORD_ID>3998_2013-04-15T15:27:27</RECORD_ID>
     <NAME>Query</NAME>
     <CONNECTION_ID>3</CONNECTION_ID>
     <STATUS>0</STATUS>
     <STATUS_CODE>0</STATUS_CODE>
     <USER>root[root] @ localhost [127.0.0.1]</USER>
     <OS_LOGIN></OS_LOGIN>
     <HOST>localhost</HOST>
     <IP>127.0.0.1</IP>
     <COMMAND_CLASS>select</COMMAND_CLASS>
     <SQLTEXT>SELECT 1</SQLTEXT>
    </AUDIT_RECORD>
    

    If you previously used an older version of the audit log plugin, use this procedure to avoid writing new-format log entries to an existing log file that contains old-format entries:

    1. Stop the server.

    2. Rename the current audit log file manually. This file will contain only old-format log entries.

    3. Update the server and restart it. The audit log plugin will create a new log file, which will contain only new-format log entries.

    For information about the audit log plugin, see Section 7.5.5, “MySQL Enterprise Audit”.

InnoDB Changes
  • Incompatible change: To simplify InnoDB tablespace discovery during crash recovery, new redo log record types were introduced in MySQL 5.7.5. This enhancement changes the redo log format. Before performing an in-place upgrade, perform a clean shutdown using an innodb_fast_shutdown setting of 0 or 1. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Upgrade.

  • Incompatible change: MySQL 5.7.8 and 5.7.9 undo logs may contain insufficient information about spatial columns, which could result in a upgrade failure (Bug #21508582). Before performing an in-place upgrade from MySQL 5.7.8 or 5.7.9 to 5.7.10 or higher, perform a slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 to clear the undo logs. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Upgrade.

  • Incompatible change: MySQL 5.7.8 undo logs may contain insufficient information about virtual columns and virtual column indexes, which could result in a upgrade failure (Bug #21869656). Before performing an in-place upgrade from MySQL 5.7.8 to MySQL 5.7.9 or higher, perform a slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 to clear the undo logs. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Upgrade.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.7.9, the redo log header of the first redo log file (ib_logfile0) includes a format version identifier and a text string that identifies the MySQL version that created the redo log files. This enhancement changes the redo log format, requiring that MySQL be shutdown cleanly using an innodb_fast_shutdown setting of 0 or 1 before performing an in-place upgrade to MySQL 5.7.9 or higher. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Upgrade.

  • In MySQL 5.7.9, DYNAMIC replaces COMPACT as the implicit default row format for InnoDB tables. A new configuration option, innodb_default_row_format, specifies the default InnoDB row format. Permitted values include DYNAMIC (the default), COMPACT, and REDUNDANT.

    After upgrading to 5.7.9, any new tables that you create will use the row format defined by innodb_default_row_format unless you explicitly define a row format (ROW_FORMAT).

    For existing tables that do not explicitly define a ROW_FORMAT option or that use ROW_FORMAT=DEFAULT, any operation that rebuilds a table also silently changes the row format of the table to the format defined by innodb_default_row_format. Otherwise, existing tables retain their current row format setting. For more information, see Section 15.11.2, “Specifying the Row Format for a Table”.

SQL Changes
  • Incompatible change: The GET_LOCK() function was reimplemented in MySQL 5.7.5 using the metadata locking (MDL) subsystem and its capabilities have been extended:

    • Previously, GET_LOCK() permitted acquisition of only one named lock at a time, and a second GET_LOCK() call released any existing lock. Now GET_LOCK() permits acquisition of more than one simultaneous named lock and does not release existing locks.

      Applications that rely on the behavior of GET_LOCK() releasing any previous lock must be modified for the new behavior.

    • The capability of acquiring multiple locks introduces the possibility of deadlock among clients. The MDL subsystem detects deadlock and returns an ER_USER_LOCK_DEADLOCK error when this occurs.

    • The MDL subsystem imposes a limit of 64 characters on lock names, so this limit now also applies to named locks. Previously, no length limit was enforced.

    • Locks acquired with GET_LOCK() now appear in the Performance Schema metadata_locks table. The OBJECT_TYPE column says USER LEVEL LOCK and the OBJECT_NAME column indicates the lock name.

    • A new function, RELEASE_ALL_LOCKS() permits release of all acquired named locks at once.

    For more information, see Section 13.20, “Miscellaneous Functions”.

  • The optimizer now handles derived tables and views in the FROM clause in consistent fashion to better avoid unnecessary materialization and to enable use of pushed-down conditions that produce more efficient execution plans. However, for statements such as DELETE or UPDATE that modify tables, using the merge strategy for a derived table that previously was materialized can result in an ER_UPDATE_TABLE_USED error:

    mysql> DELETE FROM t1
        -> WHERE id IN (SELECT id
        ->              FROM (SELECT t1.id
        ->                    FROM t1 INNER JOIN t2 USING (id)
        ->                    WHERE t2.status = 0) AS t);
    ERROR 1093 (HY000): You can't specify target table 't1'
    for update in FROM clause
    

    The error occurs when merging a derived table into the outer query block results in a statement that both selects from and modifies a table. (Materialization does not cause the problem because, in effect, it converts the derived table to a separate table.) To avoid this error, disable the derived_merge flag of the optimizer_switch system variable before executing the statement:

    SET optimizer_switch = 'derived_merge=off';
    

    The derived_merge flag controls whether the optimizer attempts to merge subqueries and views in the FROM clause into the outer query block, assuming that no other rule prevents merging. By default, the flag is on to enable merging. Setting the flag to off prevents merging and avoids the error just described. For more information, see Section 9.2.2.3, “Optimizing Derived Tables and View References”.

  • Some keywords may be reserved in MySQL 5.7 that were not reserved in MySQL 5.6. See Section 10.3, “Keywords and Reserved Words”. This can cause words previously used as identifiers to become illegal. To fix affected statements, use identifier quoting. See Section 10.2, “Schema Object Names”.

  • After upgrading, it is recommended that you test optimizer hints specified in application code to ensure that the hints are still required to achieve the desired optimization strategy. Optimizer enhancements can sometimes render certain optimizer hints unnecessary. In some cases, an unnecessary optimizer hint may even be counterproductive.

  • In UNION statements, to apply ORDER BY or LIMIT to an individual SELECT, place the clause inside the parentheses that enclose the SELECT:

    (SELECT a FROM t1 WHERE a=10 AND B=1 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10)
    UNION
    (SELECT a FROM t2 WHERE a=11 AND B=2 ORDER BY a LIMIT 10);
    

    Previous versions of MySQL may permit such statements without parentheses. In MySQL 5.7, the requirement for parentheses is enforced.

2.11.1.2 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository

For supported Yum-based platforms (see Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository”, for a list), you can perform an in-place upgrade for MySQL (that is, replacing the old version and then running the new version off the old data files) with the MySQL Yum repository.

Notes

  1. Selecting a Target Series

    By default, the MySQL Yum repository updates MySQL to the latest version in the release series you have chosen during installation (see Selecting a Release Series for details), which means, for example, a 5.6.x installation will NOT be updated to a 5.7.x release automatically. To update to another release series, you need to first disable the subrepository for the series that has been selected (by default, or by yourself) and enable the subrepository for your target series. To do that, see the general instructions given in Selecting a Release Series. For upgrading from MySQL 5.6 to 5.7, perform the reverse of the steps illustrated in Selecting a Release Series, disabling the subrepository for the MySQL 5.6 series and enabling that for the MySQL 5.7 series.

    As a general rule, to upgrade from one release series to another, go to the next series rather than skipping a series. For example, if you are currently running MySQL 5.6 and wish to upgrade to 5.7, upgrade to MySQL 5.6 first before upgrading to 5.7.

    Important

    For important information about upgrading from MySQL 5.6 to 5.7, see Upgrading from MySQL 5.6 to 5.7.

  2. Upgrading MySQL

    Upgrade MySQL and its components by the following command, for platforms that are not dnf-enabled:

    sudo yum update mysql-server
    

    For platforms that are dnf-enabled:

    sudo dnf upgrade mysql-server
    

    Alternatively, you can update MySQL by telling Yum to update everything on your system, which might take considerably more time; for platforms that are not dnf-enabled:

    sudo yum update
    

    For platforms that are dnf-enabled:

    sudo dnf upgrade
    

  3. Restarting MySQL

    The MySQL server always restarts after an update by Yum. Once the server restarts, run mysql_upgrade to check and possibly resolve any incompatibilities between the old data and the upgraded software. mysql_upgrade also performs other functions; see Section 5.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables” for details.

You can also update only a specific component. Use the following command to list all the installed packages for the MySQL components (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf):

sudo yum list installed | grep "^mysql"

After identifying the package name of the component of your choice, for platforms that are not dnf-enabled, update the package with the following command, replacing package-name with the name of the package:

sudo yum update package-name

For dnf-enabled platforms:

sudo dnf upgrade package-name

Upgrading the Shared Client Libraries

After updating MySQL using the Yum repository, applications compiled with older versions of the shared client libraries should continue to work.

If you recompile applications and dynamically link them with the updated libraries: As typical with new versions of shared libraries where there are differences or additions in symbol versioning between the newer and older libraries (for example, between the newer, standard 5.7 shared client libraries and some older—prior or variant—versions of the shared libraries shipped natively by the Linux distributions' software repositories, or from some other sources), any applications compiled using the updated, newer shared libraries will require those updated libraries on systems where the applications are deployed. And, as expected, if those libraries are not in place, the applications requiring the shared libraries will fail. So, be sure to deploy the packages for the shared libraries from MySQL on those systems. You can do this by adding the MySQL Yum repository to the systems (see Adding the MySQL Yum Repository) and install the latest shared libraries using the instructions given in Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum.

2.11.1.3 Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository

On Debian 7 or 8 and Ubuntu 12, 14, or 15, you can perform an in-place upgrade of MySQL and its components with the MySQL APT repository. See Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL APT Repository in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL APT Repository.

2.11.1.4 Upgrading MySQL with Directly-Downloaded RPM Packages

It is preferable to use the MySQL Yum repository or MySQL SLES Repository to upgrade MySQL on RPM-based platforms. However, if you have to upgrade MySQL using the RPM packages downloaded directly from the MySQL Developer Zone (see Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle” for information on the packages), go to the folder that contains all the downloaded packages (and, preferably, no other RPM packages with similar names), and issue the following command for platforms other than Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5:

yum install mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-*

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 5 systems, there is an extra package (mysql-version-el5-arch.rpm) to be installed; use the following command:

yum install mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-* mysql-5.*

Replace yum with zypper for SLES systems, and with dnf for dnf-enabled systems.

While it is much preferable to use a high-level package management tool like yum to install the packages, users who preferred direct rpm commands can replace the yum install command with the rpm -Uvh command; however, using rpm -Uvh instead makes the installation process more prone to failure, due to potential dependency issues the installation process might run into.

For an upgrade installation using RPM packages, the MySQL server is automatically restarted at the end of the installation if it was running when the upgrade installation began. If the server was not running when the upgrade installation began, you have to restart the server yourself after the upgrade installation is completed; do that with, for example, the follow command:

service mysqld start

Once the server restarts, run mysql_upgrade to check and possibly resolve any incompatibilities between the old data and the upgraded software. mysql_upgrade also performs other functions; see Section 5.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables” for details.

Note

Because of the dependency relationships among the RPM packages, all of the installed packages must be of the same version. Therefore, always update all your installed packages for MySQL. For example, do not just update the server without also upgrading the client, the common files for server and client libraries, and so on.

Migration and Upgrade from installations by older RPM packages.  Some older versions of MySQL Server RPM packages have names in the form of MySQL-* (for example, MySQL-server-* and MySQL-client-*). The latest versions of RPMs, when installed using the standard package management tool (yum, dnf, or zypper), seamlessly upgrade those older installations, making it unnecessary to uninstall those old packages before installing the new ones. Here are some differences in behavior between the older and the current RPM packages:

Table 2.13 Differences Between the Previous and the Current RPM Packages for Installing MySQL

FeatureBehavior of Previous PackagesBehavior of Current Packages
Service starts after installation is finishedYesNo, unless it is an upgrade installation, and the server was running when the upgrade began.
Service namemysql

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora: mysqld

For SLES: mysql

Error log fileAt /var/lib/mysql/hostname.err

For RHEL, Oracle Linux, CentOS, and Fedora: at /var/log/mysqld.log

For SLES: at /var/log/mysql/mysqld.log

Shipped with the /etc/my.cnf fileNoYes
Multilib supportNoYes


Note

Installation of previous versions of MySQL using older packages might have created a configuration file named /usr/my.cnf. It is highly recommended that you examine the contents of the file and migrate the desired settings inside to the file /etc/my.cnf file, then remove /usr/my.cnf.

Upgrading to MySQL Enterprise Server.  It is not necessary to remove the MySQL Community Server before upgrading to the MySQL Enterprise Server. Follow the steps given in the README file included with the MySQL Enterprise RPMs.

Interoperability with operating system native MySQL packages.  Many Linux distributions ship MySQL as an integrated part of the operating system. The latest versions of RPMs from Oracle, when installed using the standard package management tool (yum, dnf, or zypper), will seamlessly upgrade and replace the MySQL version that comes with the operating system, and the package manager will automatically replace system compatibility packages such as mysql-community-libs-compat with relevant new versions.

Upgrading from non-native MySQL packages.  If you have installed MySQL with third-party packages NOT from your Linux distribution's native software repository (for example, packages directly downloaded from the vendor), you will need to uninstall all those packages before you can upgrade using the packages from Oracle.

2.11.2 Downgrading MySQL

This section describes how to downgrade to an older MySQL version.

Note

In the following discussion, MySQL commands that must be run using a MySQL account with administrative privileges include -u root on the command line to specify the MySQL root user. Commands that require a password for root also include a -p option. Because -p is followed by no option value, such commands prompt for the password. Type the password when prompted and press Enter.

SQL statements can be executed using the mysql command-line client (connect as root to ensure that you have the necessary privileges).

Supported Downgrade Methods

Supported downgrade methods include:

  • In-Place Downgrade: Involves shutting down the new MySQL version, replacing the new MySQL binaries or packages with the old ones, and restarting the old MySQL version on the existing data directory. In-place downgrades are supported for downgrades between GA versions within the same release series. For example, in-place downgrades are supported for downgrades from 5.7.10 to 5.7.9.

  • Logical Downgrade: Involves using mysqldump to dump all tables from the new MySQL version, and then loading the dump file into the old MySQL version. Logical downgrades are supported for downgrades between GA versions within the same release series and for downgrades between release levels. For example, logical downgrades are supported for downgrades from 5.7.10 to 5.7.9 and for downgrades from 5.7 to 5.6.

For procedures, see Performing an In-Place Downgrade, and Performing a Logical Downgrade.

Supported Downgrade Paths

Unless otherwise documented, the following downgrade paths are supported:

  • Downgrading from a release series version to an older release series version is supported using all downgrade methods. For example, downgrading from 5.7.10 to 5.7.9 is supported. Skipping release series versions is also supported. For example, downgrading from 5.7.11 to 5.7.9 is supported.

  • Downgrading one release level is supported using the logical downgrade method. For example, downgrading from 5.7 to 5.6 is supported.

  • Downgrading more than one release level is supported using the logical downgrade method, but only if you downgrade one release level at a time. For example, you can downgrade from 5.7 to 5.6, and then to 5.5.

The following conditions apply to all downgrade paths:

  • Downgrades between General Availability (GA) status releases are supported.

  • Downgrades between milestone releases (or from a GA release to a milestone release) are not supported. For example, downgrading from MySQL 5.7.9 to MySQL 5.7.8 is not supported, as 5.7.8 is not a GA status release.

Before You Begin

Before downgrading, the following steps are recommended:

  • Review the Release Notes for the MySQL version you are downgrading from to ensure that there are no features or fixes that you really need.

  • Review Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.7”. This section describes changes that may require action before or after downgrading.

    Note

    The downgrade procedures described in the following sections assume you are downgrading with data files created or modified by the newer MySQL version. However, if you did not modify your data after upgrading, downgrading using backups taken before upgrading to the new MySQL version is recommended. Many of the changes described in Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.7” that require action before or after downgrading are not applicable when downgrading using backups taken before upgrading to the new MySQL version.

  • Always back up your current databases and log files before downgrading. The backup should include the mysql database, which contains the MySQL system tables. See Section 8.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  • Use of new features, new configuration options, or new configuration option values that are not supported by a previous release may cause downgrade errors or failures. Before downgrading, it is recommended that you reverse changes resulting from the use of new features and remove configuration settings that are not supported by the release you are downgrading to.

  • Check Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”, to see whether changes to table formats or to character sets or collations were made between your current version of MySQL and the version to which you are downgrading. If such changes have resulted in an incompatibility between MySQL versions, downgrade the affected tables using the instructions in Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

  • If you use XA transactions with InnoDB, run XA RECOVER before downgrading to check for uncommitted XA transactions. If results are returned, either commit or rollback the XA transactions by issuing an XA COMMIT or XA ROLLBACK statement.

Performing an In-Place Downgrade

In-place downgrades are supported for downgrades between GA status releases within the same release series. Before proceeding, review Before You Begin.

Note

For Linux systems on which MySQL is installed using RPM packages, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd, and mysqld_safe is not installed. If you installed MySQL on a Linux system using RPM packages, use systemd for server startup and shutdown instead of the methods used in the following instructions. See Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

To perform an in-place downgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.7” for steps to be performed before downgrading.

  2. Configure MySQL to perform a slow shutdown by setting innodb_fast_shutdown to 0. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --execute="SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown=0"
    

    With a slow shutdown, InnoDB performs a full purge and change buffer merge before shutting down, which ensures that data files are fully prepared in case of file format differences between releases.

  3. Shut down the newer MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. After the slow shutdown, remove the InnoDB redo log files (the ib_logfile* files) from the data directory to avoid downgrade issues related to redo log file format changes that may have occurred between releases.

    rm ib_logfile*
    
  5. Downgrade the MySQL binaries or packages in-place by replacing the newer binaries or packages with the older ones.

  6. Start the older (downgraded) MySQL server, using the existing data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    
  7. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    

    mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL, and attempts to repair the tables if problems are found.

  8. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/existing-datadir
    

Performing a Logical Downgrade

Logical downgrades are supported for downgrades between releases within the same release series and for downgrades to the previous release level. Only downgrades between General Availability (GA) status releases are supported. Before proceeding, review Before You Begin.

Note

For Linux systems on which MySQL is installed using RPM packages, server startup and shutdown is managed by systemd, and mysqld_safe is not installed. If you installed MySQL on a Linux system using RPM packages, use systemd for server startup and shutdown instead of the methods used in the following instructions. See Section 2.5.10, “Managing MySQL Server with systemd”.

To perform a logical downgrade:

  1. Review the changes described in Section 2.11.2.1, “Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.7” for steps to be performed before downgrading.

  2. Dump all databases. For example:

    mysqldump -u root -p
      --add-drop-table --routines --events
      --all-databases --force > data-for-downgrade.sql
    
  3. Shut down the newer MySQL server. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    
  4. Initialize an older MySQL instance, with a new data directory. For example, to initialize a MySQL 5.6 instance, use mysql_install_db:

    scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    
    Note

    mysql_install_db is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.6 because its functionality has been integrated into mysqld.

    To initialize a MySQL 5.7 instance, use mysqld with the --initialize or --initialize-insecure option.

    mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
    
  5. Start the older MySQL server, using the new data directory. For example:

    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/new-datadir
    
  6. Load the dump file into the older MySQL server. For example:

    mysql -u root -p --force < data-for-upgrade.sql
    
  7. Run mysql_upgrade. For example:

    mysql_upgrade -u root -p
    

    mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL, and attempts to repair the tables if problems are found.

  8. Shut down and restart the MySQL server to ensure that any changes made to the system tables take effect. For example:

    mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
    mysqld_safe --user=mysql --datadir=/path/to/new-datadir
    

Downgrade Troubleshooting

If you downgrade from one release series to another, there may be incompatibilities in table storage formats. In this case, use mysqldump to dump your tables before downgrading. After downgrading, reload the dump file using mysql or mysqlimport to re-create your tables. For examples, see Section 2.11.5, “Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine”.

A typical symptom of a downward-incompatible table format change when you downgrade is that you cannot open tables. In that case, use the following procedure:

  1. Stop the older MySQL server that you are downgrading to.

  2. Restart the newer MySQL server you are downgrading from.

  3. Dump any tables that were inaccessible to the older server by using mysqldump to create a dump file.

  4. Stop the newer MySQL server and restart the older one.

  5. Reload the dump file into the older server. Your tables should be accessible.

2.11.2.1 Changes Affecting Downgrades from MySQL 5.7

Before downgrading from MySQL 5.7, review the changes described in this section. Some changes may require action before or after downgrading.

System Table Changes
  • In MySQL 5.7.13, system table columns that store user@host string values were increased in length. Before downgrading to a previous release, ensure that there are no user@host values that exceed the previous 77 character length limit, and perform the following mysql system table alterations:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.proc MODIFY definer char(77) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL DEFAULT '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.event MODIFY definer char(77) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL DEFAULT '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.tables_priv MODIFY Grantor char(77) COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL DEFAULT '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.procs_priv MODIFY Grantor char(77) COLLATE utf8_bin NOT NULL DEFAULT '';
    
  • The maximum length of MySQL user names was increased from 16 characters to 32 characters in MySQL 5.7.8. Before downgrading to a previous release, ensure that there are no user names greater than 16 characters in length, and perform the following mysql system table alterations:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.tables_priv MODIFY User char(16) NOT NULL default '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.columns_priv MODIFY User char(16) NOT NULL default '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.user MODIFY User char(16) NOT NULL default '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.db MODIFY User char(16) NOT NULL default '';
    ALTER TABLE mysql.procs_priv MODIFY User char(16) binary DEFAULT '' NOT NULL;
    
  • The Password column of the mysql.user table was removed in MySQL 5.7.6. All credentials are stored in the authentication_string column, including those formerly stored in the Password column. To make the mysql.user table compatible with previous releases, perform the following alterations before downgrading:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.user ADD Password char(41) character set latin1
      collate latin1_bin NOT NULL default '' AFTER user;
    UPDATE mysql.user SET password = authentication_string WHERE
      LENGTH(authentication_string) = 41 AND plugin = 'mysql_native_password';
    UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string = '' WHERE
      LENGTH(authentication_string) = 41 AND plugin = 'mysql_native_password';
    
  • The help_* and time_zone* system tables changed from MyISAM to InnoDB in MySQL 5.7.5. Before downgrading to a previous release, change each affected table back to MyISAM by running the following statements:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.help_category ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.help_keyword ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.help_relation ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.help_topic ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.time_zone ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.time_zone_leap_second ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.time_zone_name ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.time_zone_transition  ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.time_zone_transition_type ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    
  • The plugin and servers system tables changed from MyISAM to InnoDB in MySQL 5.7.6. Before downgrading to a previous release, change each affected table back to MyISAM by running the following statements:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.plugin ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    ALTER TABLE mysql.servers ENGINE='MyISAM' STATS_PERSISTENT=DEFAULT;
    
  • The definition of the plugin column in the mysql.user table differs in MySQL 5.7. Before downgrading to a MySQL 5.6 server for versions 5.6.23 and higher, alter the plugin column definition using this statement:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.user MODIFY plugin CHAR(64) COLLATE utf8_bin
      DEFAULT 'mysql_native_password';
    

    Before downgrading to a MySQL 5.6.22 server or older, alter the plugin column definition using this statement:

    ALTER TABLE mysql.user MODIFY plugin CHAR(64) COLLATE utf8_bin DEFAULT '';
    
  • As of MySQL 5.7.7, the sys schema is installed by default during data directory installation. Before downgrading to a previous version, it is recommended that you drop the sys schema:

    DROP DATABASE sys;
    

    If you are downgrading to a release that includes the sys schema, mysql_upgrade recreates the sys schema in a compatible form. The sys schema is not included in MySQL 5.6.

InnoDB Changes
  • As of MySQL 5.7.5, the FIL_PAGE_FLUSH_LSN field, written to the first page of each InnoDB system tablespace file and to InnoDB undo tablespace files, is only written to the first file of the InnoDB system tablespace (page number 0:0). As a result, if you have a multiple-file system tablespace and decide to downgrade from MySQL 5.7 to MySQL 5.6, you may encounter an invalid message on MySQL 5.6 startup stating that the log sequence numbers x and y in ibdata files do not match the log sequence number y in the ib_logfiles. If you encounter this message, restart MySQL 5.6. The invalid message should no longer appear.

  • To simplify InnoDB tablespace discovery during crash recovery, new redo log record types were introduced in MySQL 5.7.5. This enhancement changes the redo log format. Before performing an in-place downgrade from MySQL 5.7.5 or later, perform a clean shutdown using an innodb_fast_shutdown setting of 0 or 1. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Downgrade.

  • MySQL 5.7.8 and 5.7.9 undo logs could contain insufficient information about spatial columns (Bug #21508582). Before performing an in-place downgrade from MySQL 5.7.10 or higher to MySQL 5.7.9 or earlier, perform a slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 to clear the undo logs. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Downgrade.

  • MySQL 5.7.8 undo logs could contain insufficient information about virtual columns and virtual column indexes (Bug #21869656). Before performing an in-place downgrade from MySQL 5.7.9 or later to MySQL 5.7.8 or earlier, perform a slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 to clear the undo logs. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 is a recommended step in Performing an In-Place Downgrade.

  • As of MySQL 5.7.9, the redo log header of the first redo log file (ib_logfile0) includes a format version identifier and a text string that identifies the MySQL version that created the redo log files. This enhancement changes the redo log format. To prevent older versions of MySQL from starting on redo log files created in MySQL 5.7.9 or later, the checksum for redo log checkpoint pages was changed. As a result, you must perform a slow shutdown of MySQL (using innodb_fast_shutdown=0) and remove the redo log files (the ib_logfile* files) before performing an in-place downgrade. A slow shutdown using innodb_fast_shutdown=0 and removing the redo log files are recommended steps in Performing an In-Place Downgrade.

Logging Changes
  • Support for sending the server error log to syslog in MySQL 5.7.5 and up differs from older versions. If you use syslog and downgrade to a version older than 5.7.5, you must stop using the relevant mysqld system variables and use the corresponding mysqld_safe command options instead. Suppose that you use syslog by setting these system variables in the [mysqld] group of an option file:

    [mysqld]
    log_syslog=ON
    log_syslog_tag=mytag
    

    To downgrade, remove those settings and add option settings in the [mysqld_safe] option file group:

    [mysqld_safe]
    syslog
    syslog-tag=mytag
    

    syslog-related system variables that have no corresponding mysqld_safe option cannot be used after a downgrade.

SQL Changes
  • A trigger can have triggers for different combinations of trigger event (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) and action time (BEFORE, AFTER), but before MySQL 5.7.2 cannot have multiple triggers that have the same trigger event and action time. MySQL 5.7.2 lifts this limitation and multiple triggers are permitted. This change has implications for downgrades.

    If you downgrade a server that supports multiple triggers to an older version that does not, the downgrade has these effects:

    • For each table that has triggers, all trigger definitions remain in the .TRG file for the table. However, if there are multiple triggers with the same trigger event and action time, the server executes only one of them when the trigger event occurs. For information about .TRG files, see Table Trigger Storage.

    • If triggers for the table are added or dropped subsequent to the downgrade, the server rewrites the table's .TRG file. The rewritten file retains only one trigger per combination of trigger event and action time; the others are lost.

    To avoid these problems, modify your triggers before downgrading. For each table that has multiple triggers per combination of trigger event and action time, convert each such set of triggers to a single trigger as follows:

    1. For each trigger, create a stored routine that contains all the code in the trigger. Values accessed using NEW and OLD can be passed to the routine using parameters. If the trigger needs a single result value from the code, you can put the code in a stored function and have the function return the value. If the trigger needs multiple result values from the code, you can put the code in a stored procedure and return the values using OUT parameters.

    2. Drop all triggers for the table.

    3. Create one new trigger for the table that invokes the stored routines just created. The effect for this trigger is thus the same as the multiple triggers it replaces.

2.11.3 Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt

A binary upgrade or downgrade is one that installs one version of MySQL in place over an existing version, without dumping and reloading tables:

  1. Stop the server for the existing version if it is running.

  2. Install a different version of MySQL. This is an upgrade if the new version is higher than the original version, a downgrade if the version is lower.

  3. Start the server for the new version.

In many cases, the tables from the previous version of MySQL can be used without problem by the new version. However, sometimes changes occur that require tables or table indexes to be rebuilt, as described in this section. If you have tables that are affected by any of the issues described here, rebuild the tables or indexes as necessary using the instructions given in Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

Index Incompatibilities

Modifications to the handling of character sets or collations might change the character sort order, which causes the ordering of entries in any index that uses an affected character set or collation to be incorrect. Such changes result in several possible problems:

  • Comparison results that differ from previous results

  • Inability to find some index values due to misordered index entries

  • Misordered ORDER BY results

  • Tables that CHECK TABLE reports as being in need of repair

The solution to these problems is to rebuild any indexes that use an affected character set or collation, either by dropping and re-creating the indexes, or by dumping and reloading the entire table. In some cases, it is possible to alter affected columns to use a different collation. For information about rebuilding indexes, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

In many cases, you can use CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE to identify tables for which index rebuilding is required. It will report this message:

Table upgrade required.
Please do "REPAIR TABLE `tbl_name`" or dump/reload to fix it!

In these cases, you can also use mysqlcheck --check-upgrade or mysql_upgrade, which execute CHECK TABLE. However, the use of CHECK TABLE applies only after upgrades, not downgrades. Also, CHECK TABLE is not applicable to all storage engines. For details about which storage engines CHECK TABLE supports, see Section 14.7.2.2, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”.

2.11.4 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes

This section describes how to rebuild a table, following changes to MySQL such as how data types or character sets are handled. For example, an error in a collation might have been corrected, requiring a table rebuild to update the indexes for character columns that use the collation. (For examples, see Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”.) You might also need to repair or upgrade a table, as indicated by a table check operation such as that performed by CHECK TABLE, mysqlcheck, or mysql_upgrade.

Methods for rebuilding a table include dumping and reloading it, or using ALTER TABLE or REPAIR TABLE. REPAIR TABLE only applies to MyISAM, ARCHIVE, and CSV tables.

Note

If you are rebuilding tables because a different version of MySQL will not handle them after a binary (in-place) upgrade or downgrade, you must use the dump-and-reload method. Dump the tables before upgrading or downgrading using your original version of MySQL. Then reload the tables after upgrading or downgrading.

If you use the dump-and-reload method of rebuilding tables only for the purpose of rebuilding indexes, you can perform the dump either before or after upgrading or downgrading. Reloading still must be done afterward.

To rebuild a table by dumping and reloading it, use mysqldump to create a dump file and mysql to reload the file:

mysqldump db_name t1 > dump.sql
mysql db_name < dump.sql

To rebuild all the tables in a single database, specify the database name without any following table name:

mysqldump db_name > dump.sql
mysql db_name < dump.sql

To rebuild all tables in all databases, use the --all-databases option:

mysqldump --all-databases > dump.sql
mysql < dump.sql

To rebuild a table with ALTER TABLE, use a null alteration; that is, an ALTER TABLE statement that changes the table to use the storage engine that it already has. For example, if t1 is an InnoDB table, use this statement:

ALTER TABLE t1 ENGINE = InnoDB;

If you are not sure which storage engine to specify in the ALTER TABLE statement, use SHOW CREATE TABLE to display the table definition.

If you need to rebuild an InnoDB table because a CHECK TABLE operation indicates that a table upgrade is required, use mysqldump to create a dump file and mysql to reload the file, as described earlier. If the CHECK TABLE operation indicates that there is a corruption or causes InnoDB to fail, refer to Section 15.21.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery” for information about using the innodb_force_recovery option to restart InnoDB. To understand the type of problem that CHECK TABLE may be encountering, refer to the InnoDB notes in Section 14.7.2.2, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”.

For MyISAM, ARCHIVE, or CSV tables, you can use REPAIR TABLE if the table checking operation indicates that there is a corruption or that an upgrade is required. For example, to repair a MyISAM table, use this statement:

REPAIR TABLE t1;

mysqlcheck --repair provides command-line access to the REPAIR TABLE statement. This can be a more convenient means of repairing tables because you can use the --databases or --all-databases option to repair all tables in specific databases or all databases, respectively:

mysqlcheck --repair --databases db_name ...
mysqlcheck --repair --all-databases

2.11.5 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine

In cases where you need to transfer databases between different architectures, you can use mysqldump to create a file containing SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Note

You can copy the .frm, .MYI, and .MYD files for MyISAM tables between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.) See Section 16.2, “The MyISAM Storage Engine”.

Use mysqldump --help to see what options are available.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

mysqladmin -h 'other_hostname' create db_name
mysqldump db_name | mysql -h 'other_hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use these commands:

mysqladmin create db_name
mysqldump -h 'other_hostname' --compress db_name | mysql db_name

You can also store the dump in a file, transfer the file to the target machine, and then load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a compressed file on the source machine like this:

mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.gz

Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

mysqladmin create db_name
gunzip < db_name.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to transfer the database. For large tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR represents the full path name of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

mkdir DUMPDIR
mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Do not forget to copy the mysql database because that is where the grant tables are stored. You might have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.

2.12 Perl Installation Notes

The Perl DBI module provides a generic interface for database access. You can write a DBI script that works with many different database engines without change. To use DBI, you must install the DBI module, as well as a DataBase Driver (DBD) module for each type of database server you want to access. For MySQL, this driver is the DBD::mysql module.

Note

Perl support is not included with MySQL distributions. You can obtain the necessary modules from http://search.cpan.org for Unix, or by using the ActiveState ppm program on Windows. The following sections describe how to do this.

The DBI/DBD interface requires Perl 5.6.0, and 5.6.1 or later is preferred. DBI does not work if you have an older version of Perl. You should use DBD::mysql 4.009 or higher. Although earlier versions are available, they do not support the full functionality of MySQL 5.7.

2.12.1 Installing Perl on Unix

MySQL Perl support requires that you have installed MySQL client programming support (libraries and header files). Most installation methods install the necessary files. If you install MySQL from RPM files on Linux, be sure to install the developer RPM as well. The client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM.

The files you need for Perl support can be obtained from the CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) at http://search.cpan.org.

The easiest way to install Perl modules on Unix is to use the CPAN module. For example:

shell> perl -MCPAN -e shell
cpan> install DBI
cpan> install DBD::mysql

The DBD::mysql installation runs a number of tests. These tests attempt to connect to the local MySQL server using the default user name and password. (The default user name is your login name on Unix, and ODBC on Windows. The default password is no password.) If you cannot connect to the server with those values (for example, if your account has a password), the tests fail. You can use force install DBD::mysql to ignore the failed tests.

DBI requires the Data::Dumper module. It may be installed; if not, you should install it before installing DBI.

It is also possible to download the module distributions in the form of compressed tar archives and build the modules manually. For example, to unpack and build a DBI distribution, use a procedure such as this:

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

    shell> gunzip < DBI-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    

    This command creates a directory named DBI-VERSION.

  2. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

    shell> cd DBI-VERSION
    
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:

    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install
    

The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the DBD::mysql installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test fails.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the DBD::mysql distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL. This ensures that the latest versions of the MySQL client libraries are installed correctly.

If you do not have access rights to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you want to install local Perl modules, the following reference may be useful: http://learn.perl.org/faq/perlfaq8.html#How-do-I-keep-my-own-module-library-directory-

2.12.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows

On Windows, you should do the following to install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl:

  1. Get ActiveState Perl from http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/ and install it.

  2. Open a console window.

  3. If necessary, set the HTTP_proxy variable. For example, you might try a setting like this:

    C:\> set HTTP_proxy=my.proxy.com:3128
    
  4. Start the PPM program:

    C:\> C:\perl\bin\ppm.pl
    
  5. If you have not previously done so, install DBI:

    ppm> install DBI
    
  6. If this succeeds, run the following command:

    ppm> install DBD-mysql
    

This procedure should work with ActiveState Perl 5.6 or higher.

If you cannot get the procedure to work, you should install the ODBC driver instead and connect to the MySQL server through ODBC:

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn",$user,$password) ||
  die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

2.12.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

If Perl reports that it cannot find the ../mysql/mysql.so module, the problem is probably that Perl cannot locate the libmysqlclient.so shared library. You should be able to fix this problem by one of the following methods:

  • Copy libmysqlclient.so to the directory where your other shared libraries are located (probably /usr/lib or /lib).

  • Modify the -L options used to compile DBD::mysql to reflect the actual location of libmysqlclient.so.

  • On Linux, you can add the path name of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the /etc/ld.so.conf file.

  • Add the path name of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable. Some systems use LD_LIBRARY_PATH instead.

Note that you may also need to modify the -L options if there are other libraries that the linker fails to find. For example, if the linker cannot find libc because it is in /lib and the link command specifies -L/usr/lib, change the -L option to -L/lib or add -L/lib to the existing link command.

If you get the following errors from DBD::mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the mysql.so library gets built (check the output from make for mysql.so when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the path name of the directory where libgcc.a is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL are not both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.